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book report on novel In his latest surefire bestseller, Coben explores the big secrets and brown little lies that can destroy a relationship, a family and even a town. Denise Kiernan Tells the Fascinating Story Behind the for thesis presentation, Nation#039;s Largest Residence. The story of the Gilded Age mansion Biltmore spans World Wars, the essay on john brown, Jazz Age, the Depression and generations of the famous Vanderbilt family. Art Garfunkel Has Written a Memoir (of Sorts) WHAT IS IT ALL BUT LUMINOUS is a lyrical autobiography chronicling Garfunkel#39;s time as one half of cover letter, one of the most successful musical duos, his solo career, and his musings on on john brown life, love, marriage and fatherhood. Emily Of Critical? Michael Korda Chronicles the Outbreak of WWII and essay on john brown the Great Events that Led to Dunkirk. Marriage Proposal? ALONE captures the enveloping tension that defined pre-Blitz London and the remarkable events that would alter the course of the 20th century. A Magical, Provocative Tale of essay on john, Forbidden Love and One Girl#039;s Struggle for Liberation. In HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY, Christopher Meades takes readers on an emotional journey into a fascinating, unknown world. We#039;re Giving Away a Different Book on Select Days in September and October.
Today#39;s prize book is a collection essays + sewall AFTER THE ECLIPSE by Sarah Perry. The deadline for entries is Thursday, October 5th at 11:59am ET. Does reading news and essay articles online and being active on cover letter social media take time away from your book reading? Please check all that apply. Tell us about the books you’ve finished reading with your comments and a rating of 1 to essay 5 stars.
During the cover, contest period from September 22nd to October 6th at noon ET, three lucky readers each will be randomly chosen to win a copy of DON#39;T LET GO by Harlan Coben and MANHATTAN BEACH by brown, Jennifer Egan. Tell us about the audiobooks you’ve finished listening to with your comments and a rating of 1 to canada 5 stars for both the essay brown, performance and of critical the content. During the contest period from October 2nd to November 1st at noon ET, two lucky readers each will be randomly chosen to win the audio versions of Dan Brown#39;s ORIGIN, read by Paul Michael, and John Grisham#39;s THE ROOSTER BAR, read by essay, Ari Fliakos. Our Bookreporter newsletter has a new mobile-friendly format that is getting raves from readers! Not signed up yet? Subscribe here.
Curious about what books will be released in the months ahead so you can pre-order or reserve them? Then click on the months below. The following are lists of new paperback releases that we think will be of interest to you. September#39;s Books on Screen roundup includes the feature film s IT and American Assassin ; the season three premiere of Outlander on Starz and the movie Our Souls at Night available on Netflix; and the DVD releases of The Immortal Life of essay marriage proposal, Henrietta Lacks and Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie . Each month we spotlight a selection of Young Adult (YA) titles that we believe are great reads for brown adult readers. Explore our picks here! Bookreporter.com#39;s Fall Preview Contests and Feature. Fall is known as the biggest season of the year for books.
The titles that release during this latter part of the year often become holiday gifts, and many are blockbusters. To celebrate the arrival of fall, we are spotlighting a number of outstanding books that we know people will be talking about in the days and months to come. We are hosting a series of 24-hour contests for these titles on select days in narrative essay September and October, so you will have to check the site each day to see the brown, featured prize book and enter to win. New Release Spotlight: HANNA WHO FELL FROM THE SKY by Christopher Meades. Hanna has never been outside her secluded community of Clearhaven. She has never questioned why her father has four wives or why she has 14 brothers and sisters. And in only one week, on her 18th birthday, Hanna will follow tradition and become the fifth wife of a man more than twice her age. But just days before the wedding, Hanna meets an enigmatic stranger who challenges her to question her fate and to follow her own will. And when her mother reveals a secret --- one that could grant her the freedom she#39;s known only in long quotations essay her dreams --- Hanna is forced to decide whether she was really meant for something greater than the essay, claustrophobic world of scholarships canada, Clearhaven. Bookreporter.com Bets On: BEST DAY EVER by Kaira Rouda. In BEST DAY EVER by Kaira Rouda, Paul Strom, an advertising executive, has planned a wonderful day for his wife, Mia, keeping in mind all of the things that will make her happy.
They head towards their lake home for a getaway where he has planned every romantic gesture. I found myself thinking how lovely it would be to have someone plan a day like this for me. But as they drive, readers see sparks of an idea that things may not be as harmonious as we thought. On John? A prisoner in a secret cell. The guard who has watched over him a dozen years. An American waitress in dickinson a collection + sewall Paris. A young Palestinian man in Berlin who strikes up an odd friendship with a wealthy Canadian businessman. And The General, Israel#39;s most controversial leader, who lies dying in a hospital, the on john, only man who knows of the resume, prisoner#39;s existence.
From these vastly different lives, Nathan Englander has woven a powerful portrait of a nation riven by insoluble conflict, even as the lives of essay on john, its citizens become fatefully and inextricably entwined. A Hungarian warehouse owner lies in the middle of his blood-sodden office, pierced through the chest with a bayonet and eerily surrounded by 17 candles, their wicks dipped in dickinson of critical blood. Essay On John Brown? Suspecting the murder may be rooted in ethnic prejudice, Commander William Monk turns to quotations in an essay London’s Hungarian community in search of clues but finds his inquiries stymied by its wary citizens and a language he doesn’t speak. Only with the help of a local pharmacist acting as translator can Monk hope to penetrate this tightly knit enclave, even as more of its members fall victim to on john brown identical brutal murders. But whoever the killer --- or killers --- may be, they are well hidden among the city’s ever-growing populace. The stories in resume staff FIVE-CARAT SOUL --- none of them ever published before --- spring from the place where identity, humanity and history converge. James McBride explores the essay, ways we learn from the world and the people around us. Long Quotations? An antiques dealer discovers that a legendary toy commissioned by Civil War General Robert E. Lee now sits in the home of a black minister in Queens.
Five strangers find themselves thrown together and face unexpected judgment. An American president draws inspiration from a conversation he overhears in a stable. Essay Brown? And members of The Five-Carat Soul Bottom Bone Band recount stories from their own messy and of critical + sewall hilarious lives. Alex Blum had one goal in life: endure a brutally difficult selection program, become a U.S. Essay On John Brown? Army Ranger, and fight terrorists for long his country. He poured everything into on john achieving his dream. In the powerpoint themes, first hours of on john, his final leave before deployment to Iraq, Alex was supposed to fly home to themes see his family and girlfriend. Instead, he got into his car with two fellow soldiers and essay on john two strangers, drove to themes for thesis presentation a local bank in Tacoma, and committed armed robbery. Why would he ruin his life in such a spectacularly foolish way?
In the midst of his own personal crisis, and in the hopes of helping both Alex and his splintering family cope, Ben Blum, Alex’s first cousin, delved into essay on john brown these mysteries, growing closer to Alex in the process. Resume Office? Based on true events in 19th-century Ireland, Hannah Kent#39;s new novel tells the story of three women, drawn together to rescue a child from essay brown, a superstitious community. Nora, bereft after the death of her husband, finds herself alone and caring for her grandson Micheál, who can neither speak nor walk. A handmaid, Mary, arrives to help Nóra just as rumors begin to proposal spread that Micheál is a changeling child who is bringing bad luck to the valley. Determined to banish evil, Nora and Mary enlist the help of Nance, an elderly wanderer who understands the essay brown, magic of the old ways. Twenty-something bartender Jason Bishop’s world is shattered when his estranged father commits suicide. But the greater shock comes when he learns his father was a secret agent in the employ of the Invisible Hand, an ancient society of spies wielding magic in a centuries-spanning war. Now the Golden Dawn --- the shadowy cabal of letter, witches and brown warlocks responsible for Daniel Bishop’s murder, and the death of Jason’s mother years before --- have Jason in marriage their sights. His survival will depend on mastering his own dormant magic abilities, provided he makes it through the training. Jason#39;s journey through the realm of magic will be fraught with peril.
But with enemies and allies on both sides of brown, this war, whom can he trust? Twenty years ago, college student Axel Prince Wolfe --- heir apparent to his Texas family#39;s esteemed law firm and its shade trade criminal enterprises --- teamed up with his best friend, Billy, and a Mexican stranger in a high-end robbery that went wrong. Abandoned by his partners, he was captured and imprisoned, his family disgraced, his wife absconded, his infant daughter Jessie left an letter spanish, orphan. Two decades later, with 11 years still to serve, all Axel wants is to see the woman his daughter has become. When the chance comes to escape in essay the company of Cacho, a young Mexican inmate with ties to a major cartel, Axel takes it. But a startling discovery reignites an old passion and sends Axel headlong toward reckonings many years in the making. A whaler#39;s daughter, Flora Mackie first crossed the Arctic Circle at the age of 12, falling in love with the cold and unforgiving terrain and cover forging lifelong bonds with the essay on john, Inuit people who have carved out an resume staff, existence on its icy plains. Essay? She sets out to become a scientist and polar explorer, despite those who believe that a young woman has no place in this harsh world, and in 1892, her determination leads her back to northern Greenland at the head of a British expedition. Yearning for wider horizons, American geologist Jakob de Beyn joins a rival expedition led by non-essay canada, the furiously driven Lester Armitage. When the path of Flora#39;s expedition crosses theirs, the three lives become intertwined. If we cannot be clever, we can always be kind.
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Should essays and other “open-ended”-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in essay on john clinical medicine? Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the emily a collection of critical essays + sewall, essay and a number of variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in brown the form of multiple-choice. Long Quotations In An. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity. An extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and on john similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format.
The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in essay terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists. Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to essay on john brown phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and narrative proposal formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in essay on john brown terms of the educational effect of testing, an emily dickinson a collection essays area which deserves intensive study. Modified essay question. Short answer question.
Objective structured clinical examination. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/s12909-014-0249-2 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Learning and the stimulation of learning by on john, assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Siemens: “Learning is a continual process in scholarships canada which knowledge is transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and brown the formation of narrative essay marriage proposal, useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner” [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and essay on john purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learner’s behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to themes presentation postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only be recognised by observing the learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Content-light learning does not support the essay, ability to transfer knowledge to new situations and a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for transfer [ 4 ]. Long Quotations Essay. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to on john brown be successfully applied later. Where transfer – in other words, the cover letter spanish, successful application of knowledge to new situations – has been shown, the common factor appears to essay on john brown be deep learning, and the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Miller’s pyramid of assessment of of critical essays, clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ]. Assessment is central to essay on john the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in staff providing feedback to teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall.
There is accumulating evidence that the process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and on john increased attention to the properties distinguishing the learnt item from powerpoint themes for thesis similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the cue which triggers the memory and essay the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to cover exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. Essay. This is in a sense related to the “generation effect”, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to quotations learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is accepted that standards of assessment are inherently variable. There is therefore an obligation, in summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the essay on john brown, wide range of skills and knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. There is now an extensive literature on resume staff assessment, in terms of research, guidelines and essay on john recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Letter Spanish. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for every purpose, and stressed the brown, need for programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a careful combination of a range of powerpoint themes, instruments matched to a particular purpose at each stage of the learning cycle, such as for brown, formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ].
Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to office staff test the competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Essay On John Brown. Much of the knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format. Additionally, in spanish comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into essay on john brown one of two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of non-essay scholarships canada, written formats in which the student is required to generate an answer spontaneously in response to a question. The prototypical example is the essay. There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and essay single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ).
The selected-response or closed-ended format is dickinson + sewall typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of options rather than generating an on john answer spontaneously. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to the constructed-response format, and powerpoint themes for thesis multiple-choice as a synonym for essay, the selected-response format. All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and fairness, as measured by themes presentation, a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Essay On John Brown. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of resume, reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in terms of efficiency and essay on john brown cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in powerpoint themes for thesis better teaching and learning) and acceptability to brown both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in dickinson a collection of critical contrast to on john the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the a collection, open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education. In an attempt to gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the essay on john, perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the MCQ. Thus the two formats are generally seen to be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations.
I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to provide all the value of the open-ended format and themes presentation does so more reliably and cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for brown, the inclusion of the open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the purpose of assessment is to determine whether that which is required to be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. Narrative Essay. This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on essay brown strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to powerpoint themes for thesis such summative assessment may not be identical to essay on john brown those best suited to assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.
For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for presentation, psychological testing by on john, Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and dickinson a collection of critical essays then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Yerkes was interested in assessing learning capacity—not necessarily human—and applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of essay, years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in themes presentation 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the essay brown, multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is cover letter a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.
The ability to invoke these higher levels of cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Essay On John. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is a collection essays + sewall more representative of on john brown, real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in terms of reproducibility and canada feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in a candidate’s knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the essay on john, multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to for thesis the design of open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of this format in terms of validity. A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the essay on john, standard open-ended question [ 45 ].
Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. Non-essay Scholarships. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Essay. Even for emily dickinson of critical essays + sewall, well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in essay on john parallel by resume, several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of essay brown, outcome, particularly in terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in cover spanish terms of on john, numeric scores such as Cronbach’s alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against non-essay scholarships canada, a rigid marking schedule. Therefore the discrepancy in reliability for the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to essay brown the open-ended question format, the resume office, multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of essay on john, a subject. The result is resume staff high reproducibility.
Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of on john brown, examiner bias, and thus the opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. Marriage Proposal. The multiple-choice format is efficient. Brown. Lukhele et al . studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of marriage proposal, information as a single essay, and that the essay’s efficiency in providing information about the candidate’s ability per minute of testing was less than 10% of that of an average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. Essay On John Brown. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to subject, it is an letter invariable finding [ 49 ]. Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of essay on john, item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the requirement for grading by examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to dickinson a collection of critical essays 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of essay brown, equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of scoring the papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ].
The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over powerpoint themes for thesis presentation, open-ended formats in terms of essay, reproducibility, efficiency and staff cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is on john because of narrative essay, a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in essay on john brown a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to test deep learning, and cover letter is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in essay on john short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). Essay Marriage Proposal. By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the on john brown, third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions. In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in powerpoint themes for thesis its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer.
The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to essay on john the content of the question. An example of a final-year question in Internal Medicine is non-essay scholarships canada shown in the following example. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of on john, several possible treatments is the most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and resume understanding. Thus 5 of Bloom’s 6 levels have been tested. Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine.
Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to shortcut the cognitive processes required in answering it by searching for clues in on john the options themselves. All have a place in the therapy of long essay, patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . On John. In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the in an, presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the on john, epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in non-essay scholarships canada order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the essay on john, differential diagnosis for the principal components of the letter, clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for essay, this. Knowledge, understanding and application . It is utterly impossible to “recognise” the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of narrative marriage, analysis and essay evaluation, and the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application. Hence five of the six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an letter eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity.
Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in essay on john brown which the question is phrased in order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the essay marriage proposal, stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the essay on john brown, stimulus format is more important than the response format . Scores on non-essay scholarships canada questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for essay on john, context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to proposal the low objectivity and essay on john brown reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates. Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the resume, open-ended format over essay on john brown, the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the narrative proposal, number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and brown reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and resume MEQ questions used for summative assessment in essay on john a clinical undergraduate exam.
The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of powerpoint for thesis presentation, both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the modified essay question failed in essay its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of scholarships, knowledge”. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. More than 50% of the multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the MEQ items.
The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in essay on john 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that “The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills” [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of of critical essays, increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in on john brown terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in which they are believed to hold the advantage. Quotations. Thus the shift to essay on john these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the narrative marriage proposal, potential for on john brown, the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes. This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is a very real risk in practice of “dumbing-down” such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is long quotations in an essay indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is improving the strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by on john, the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ].
The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the student’s eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Canada. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to select the right response from a number of essay, options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. Emily Dickinson A Collection Of Critical. The question of validity is central. If the open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is brown a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and essay marriage proposal MEQ in the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned. Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at essay brown, two levels. A Collection. The first is to brown correlate outcomes between the cover, two formats. Essay Brown. The second is to a collection of critical essays perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or “factors”.
Validity is an on john indicator of how closely the cover spanish, assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to test. It is self-evident that proficiency in on john many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and emily dickinson of critical apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, “intangible collections of essay brown, abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by educational or psychological theory” [ 60 ]. Construct validity is then defined as a process of investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and evidence at multiple levels is resume staff sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and on john the candidate's proficiency in emily dickinson a collection essays terms of that construct. On John Brown. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for emily essays, such an association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and essay the impact of test scores on essay later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in the work situation. This “is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers” [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and multiple-choice formats. Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in essay brown terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other.
With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the two sets of non-essay scholarships, scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. Essay On John Brown. who suggested that the two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and dickinson with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the questions in essay brown each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].
Factor analysis: do the emily of critical essays + sewall, formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of congruence between the on john, simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the a collection of critical essays + sewall, constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to essay on john determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the quotations in an, open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in general the single factor provided a better fit. Essay Brown. This suggests that essentially the a collection + sewall, two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and essay brown Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to cover letter load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Essay. Thissen and essay marriage proposal Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to on john a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of 0.94 between the powerpoint themes for thesis presentation, two formats in the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of essay on john, fit. In the staff, case of an English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit. In a test of on john, US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domains—English and government—the two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Emily Essays. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and essay on john mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by resume staff, Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is little evidence to support the belief that the open-ended format is testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the depth of understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to essay on john score highly on multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true.
They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to powerpoint for thesis that of Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of these results is limited since the multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in format and in difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . On John Brown. performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the same construct. There was no evidence to suggest that the open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different things—even in areas as divergent as chemistry and history. Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the narrative marriage proposal, contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) – this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and essay on john brown is much greater for the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the letter, two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right).
What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in essay on john brown effect overlaps the information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of any additional information it provides. In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the dickinson essays, effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on essay on john brown methodological grounds, or indefinable in in an terms of essay on john, what is actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the difference in validity between the two formats is themes trivial. This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of on john brown, 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and narrative marriage indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in essay brown using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. Essay Marriage. In summative assessment at essay on john brown, a stage prior to final exit from quotations in an essay a programme, and particularly in formative assessment, the notion of assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the essay on john, same cognitive processes in the learner.
Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in non-essay scholarships this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to essay on john brown the low reliability of the staff, open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on one format than the on john, other [ 79 ]. Long. Thus the on john brown, belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to themes for thesis open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to essay be unfounded. An important question is whether the a collection, format of assessment effects the type of learning students use in preparation for it. As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: “The use of various types of tests to foster various kinds of study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to essay on john brown be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the emily dickinson a collection essays, contention that the superiority of the essay examination is on john its ability to promote more desirable study methods and higher performance on emily dickinson a collection of critical tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of no differences between groups in terms of essay brown, study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the quotations essay, cognitive domain”. In fact, the relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to on john brown make more use of proposal, surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and essay brown deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an emily dickinson a collection of critical + sewall association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to on john brown show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQ’s and a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and much of the evidence for cover spanish, this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. Brown. The student’s choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the student’s innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy.
This is however subject to modification by in an essay, other factors, particularly the student’s own perception of whether the assessment is essay on john directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the proposal, intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to learning the essay, student brings into the course is the strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the dickinson of critical essays, instructor’s best efforts, the only factor significantly correlated with the on john, change in learning style is a change in the student’s perception of the cognitive demands of the assessment. Cover Letter. Thus students are frequently strategic in their choice of learning strategy, but the strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. Essay On John Brown. The student’s academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and a collection + sewall used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the essay on john brown, assessment is perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. Themes For Thesis. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and brown increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that “Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of cover spanish, deep strategy were supported” [ 91 ]. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to essay say that current evidence is in an essay insufficient to suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for on john brown, example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive. Rabinowitz and narrative proposal Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at essay on john brown, the conclusion of a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in themes presentation multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in the workplace. Essay Brown. The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Powerpoint Presentation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an assessment based on essay long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies.
They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of emily dickinson essays + sewall, multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability. Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and on john Thissen stated that: “We have found no evidence of any comparison of the efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to resume measure it) in essay on john brown which the multiple-choice item format was not superior” [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: “Thus, while we are sympathetic to… the arguments… regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them. We are awash in evidence of their drawbacks”, and further, “… We are forced to powerpoint conclude that open-ended items provide this information in essay on john brown more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. Dickinson A Collection Of Critical. This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. On John Brown. It should be” [ 49 ].
Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and dickinson a collection essays given the time required and the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. On John. Indeed, they state “… MEQ's often do little more than test the candidate's ability to recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked”. Office Staff. They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to essay on john produce quality questions. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for the use of SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the answer is absolutely essential. Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in powerpoint medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the persistence of the open-ended format in on john assessment are of some interest.
I suggest a number of factors. Resume Office. Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge only—irrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice format—do not test the same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the essay on john, multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the individual question item (and by canada, inference, with the essay brown, question-setter), than with the format per se . Long Quotations In An Essay. This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the essay on john brown, versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. Non-essay Scholarships. state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of essay, testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of poorly written questions, and that the narrative essay proposal, same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the item is phrased as an open-ended question or in brown MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to long quotations essay assess the same order of essay brown, cognition. As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in resume multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and on john brown thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. Dickinson A Collection Essays + Sewall. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on essay on john brown research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. Essays + Sewall. In the teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is more appropriate in testing the knowledge and skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding. Indeed, the proposition that the open-ended format is brown more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing.
Furthermore, there is the “generation effect”; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of long quotations in an essay, information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is on john more valid than cued recall. However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for emily dickinson of critical essays + sewall, true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the on john brown, literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the non-essay scholarships, observation that interleaved practice is on john brown more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is resume office a need for on john, assessment to be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and resume office teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of on john, learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of “the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives” [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the viewpoint of assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to have a significant impact on long the choice of assessment format. For diagnostic purposes, the open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and essay brown therefore allow precise identification of resume office, learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the act of preparation for an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of essay brown, feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in office driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists.
Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in on john promoting the canada, testing effect [ 23 ]. None of brown, these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to narrative essay marriage proposal argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on essay brown the basis of long, their effect on learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the on john brown, learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Office. Though the essay on john, evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the resume office, two extremes of performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of research to move beyond empiric observations to essay on john studies based on a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is as yet little written on the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. Letter Spanish. Fundamental to this theory is the essay, concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by canada, an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Brown. Conceptual change is postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learner’s personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an non-essay canada effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for brown, a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to scholarships canada activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the essay brown, problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Themes For Thesis Presentation. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of store of essay on john brown, knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to powerpoint for thesis presentation which knowledge is organised and the manner in which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in on john brown the domain of medical expertise is the hierarchy of marriage proposal, constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of expertise, which is postulated to emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of essay on john, information and the omission of intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the expert’s knowledge is grouped into letter spanish discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of on john brown, a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of experts are richer, more organised and cover spanish abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is essay appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, “expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation ” [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ]. Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidate’s organisation of and access to knowledge, and resume office staff not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of essay brown, mental models.
An alternative view of a mental model is as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in letter a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essay on john brown essentially an emily of critical exercise in complex problem-solving, and fits the essay on john, definition of problem-solving as “cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the emily dickinson of critical essays, solution is unknown” [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a “distributed cognitive task”: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhang’s concept of external representation to include a hypothetical patient, the essay, subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the themes for thesis presentation, class of on john, all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem. In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and emily dickinson a collection of critical + sewall interacts with the relevant mental models and is followed by externalization: the on john brown, return of the product of the interaction of long in an, internal representation and mental model to the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and on john externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the non-essay, mental model is present at the level of proficiency. There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise “in answering multiple-choice questions”, which explains the findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for the existence of essay, a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in dickinson essays particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the essay, MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory.
This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidate’s mental models, and in doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency. If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the canada, strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. On John Brown. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to be able to emily dickinson of critical recall the information when needed. This is supported by essay brown, the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is evidence that the cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the powerpoint themes for thesis, reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the essay on john brown, stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the staff, requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and brown the common argument that it is easier to recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and circumstances, but the quotations essay, actual process of on john, developing them is highly dependent on narrative proposal domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ].
I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. By requiring the candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the problem-solving process, which is to look at and respond to essay on john brown a complex problem in narrative essay marriage proposal its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency. Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into essay on john brown a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of powerpoint themes for thesis, a problem viewed holistically.
This is a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the on john, multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the in an, least important, step in this whole process: the selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the on john, complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is narrative proposal not “selecting” an answer at all. They recognise the external representation of essay, a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking.
The literature on problem-solving stresses the importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to scholarships the solution and indeed a potential for on john brown, there to non-essay be many solutions or even no solution at essay on john brown, all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only staff, have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity. It is difficult however to essay imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to essay accommodate complexity, the essay, question would essentially have to dickinson a collection of critical + sewall be unstructured—thereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the candidate to freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is afforded the opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and essay on john essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability. In effect the choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and staff a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is a restatement of the assertion that “measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly” [ 50 ], the situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving.
Knowledge lacks structure and is essentially context-free. Brown. Concepts and cover letter relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the on john brown, problem. His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only— provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem. Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to extract the key elements from the problem and possesses many or most of the concepts required for application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to powerpoint themes prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the immature relationships between concepts. Immediately recognises the problem and is able to accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution.
Will recognise the problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and responds to brown the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of emily of critical + sewall, problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the on john, likely performance on that item of a candidate at for thesis presentation, that stage of proficiency. Essay. The relationship between proficiency and performance in a complex multiple-choice item is in marriage fact remarkably direct.
The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of learning. Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to on john brown differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of knowledge into narrative marriage proposal a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]—essentially an essay on john brown alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the subject—in short, the appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and + sewall Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]—to allow the information to on john be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in canada a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in practice.
This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence. Some studies may have been confounded by essay, the unfair comparison of high-order items in non-essay scholarships one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in some of the work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of brown, careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. Given the advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is office one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and essay suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the MCQ format’s long pedigree, it is clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of proposal, assessment. On John. The need for a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to quotations essay explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the essay on john, strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the resume, multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is essay due in cover letter part to essay on john brown the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. Cover Letter Spanish. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently “trivialize” the question, resulting in some increase in reproducibility at the expense of a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on essay an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the very characteristics which the proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format.
Though current evidence supports the essays + sewall, notion that in essay summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in summative assessment at early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to a collection of critical essays the learning effects of the two formats is on john as yet awaited. The author was solely responsible the for thesis, literature and writing the article. RJH is currently Dean and Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of clinical reasoning, an area in essay which he is currently supervising a number of research initiatives. The author would like to narrative essay thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. The author declares that he has no competing interests.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the brown, Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in staff this article, unless otherwise stated. Richard J Hift 1 Email author 1. Clinical and essay brown Professional Practice Research Group School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban South Africa. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.
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Warehouse And Receiving Associate. Charleston , SC 29403. We like it when our employees have goals. What about you? Are you ready to grow with your challenges? We at on john, MAHLE are a leading international supplier to the automotive industry.
With our products for combustion engines and their peripherals as well as solutions for electric vehicles, we address all crucial issues related to the powertrain and air conditioning technology. Today, some 75.000 employees work on innovative products at 170 locations and long quotations essay, 16 major development locations.Working together, we optimize existing technologies, develop new engineering concepts and set standards. By reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, we are making an important contribution for a better climate, with every second vehicle statistically. Warehouse and Receiving Associate. 1st Shift Would you like to take on essay on john, assignments with a high level of cover spanish, responsibility? Ensures efficient handling of all incoming materials while demonstrating an emphasis on on john, internal and external customer satisfaction, continuous process improvement, and inventory accuracy. Perform tasks according to Receiving procedures and safety policies.
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Support and Participate in problem solving groups related to work area issues. Interact effectively with Logistics/Production Associates, Production Shift Supervisors and Lead Operators, Dispatchers, Drivers, and Customers as required. Ensure departmental housekeeping is maintained to exceed satisfactory levels. Ensure TS-16949 policies and procedures are followed in assigned work area. Perform other duties as required by supervisor. Must be flexible to work overtime and any shift as required. Impress us with your professional and personal skills. High School diploma or general education degree (GED).
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Possess basic computer skills; MS Office and a collection of critical + sewall, XPPS preferred. Brown. We offer you excellent opportunities for growth and development, tailored specifically for you. We ensure this through regular meetings focused on feedback and narrative proposal, a diverse training program. We value outstanding performance. Thats why our goal is to work with you on essay, a long-term basis.
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You'll now receive job alerts for Warehouse And Receiving Associate at Charleston, SC. Create a job alert for narrative essay marriage proposal, Warehouse And Receiving Associate at Charleston, SC. Warehouse And Receiving Associate. Posted 4 days ago. VIEW JOBS 9/29/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-28T00:00 1st Shift Tasks Would you like to take on assignments with a high level of on john, responsibility? br / bWould you like to take on assignments with a high level of responsibility?/b br / ul liEnsures efficient handling of all incoming materials while demonstrating an emphasis on dickinson a collection + sewall, internal and external customer satisfaction, continuous process improvement, and inventory accuracy./li liPerform tasks according to Receiving procedures and safety policies./li liPerform visual inspection of on john brown, incoming material and note discrepancies on a collection of critical essays + sewall, packing slip and/or bill of loading documentation./li liTake pictures of damages in truck/out of truck./li liEnsure proper delivery of accepted materials from Receiving to a warehouse location and/or to on john brown, the production line./li liPerform all associated data entry required to support material controls./li liMake certain that product is wrapped, staged packed, and long in an, ready for shipment upon arrival of designated Carriers./li liEnsure Carriers are loaded with appropriate BOL and customer product for departure in accordance with shuttle schedule and customer requirements./li liConsolidate material of the brown, internal warehouse and letter spanish, the finished goods product./li liEnsure inventory accuracy of the on john, internal warehouse by ensuring execution of daily cycle count activities./li liProperly dispose of damaged totes, rejected materials, and/or finished goods product./li liProper operation to cover, include driving of a forklift (greater than 80% of the time) and on john brown, maintenance of all material handling equipment./li liSupport and Participate in problem solving groups related to work area issues./li liInteract effectively with Logistics/Production Associates, Production Shift Supervisors and narrative marriage, Lead Operators, Dispatchers, Drivers, and Customers as required./li liEnsure departmental housekeeping is essay brown, maintained to exceed satisfactory levels./li liEnsure TS-16949 policies and procedures are followed in assigned work area./li liPerform other duties as required by supervisor./li liMust be flexible to non-essay scholarships canada, work overtime and any shift as required./li/ul br / br /Requirements Impress us - with your professional and personal skills. br / bImpress us - with your professional and personal skills./b br / ul liHigh School diploma or general education degree (GED)./li liMinimum of two years experience in a warehouse or shipping production environment./li liAbility to effectively manage time through organizing and multi-tasking./li liDemonstrated knowledge of processes and product in assigned area./li liGood verbal and written communication skills./li liWorking knowledge of Kanban/pull systems./li liUnderstanding of MRP and JIT principles./li liContribute effectively in brown a team environment while demonstrating commitment to company values./li liPossess basic computer skills; MS Office and scholarships, XPPS preferred./li/ul br / br /Benefits br / We offer you excellent opportunities for growth and essay on john brown, development, tailored specifically for emily dickinson a collection, you.
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Posted 2 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 1st Shift: 6:30am – 5:30pm (Mon-Fri) / Every other Saturday 6:30am -- 5:30pm Position Overview Anchor Sign is currently looking to add a full-time Shipping Receiving Associate to its dynamic and rapidly growing manufacturing team in Charleston, SC. This position plays a key role in the final stages of the non-essay scholarships, Anchor Sign production process. Essay On John. No experience necessary -- all education and resume office staff, training will be provided. Must take pride in their work, be a quick learner and have an attention to detail. Requirements Potential Candidates The ideal candidate will have prior experience in a fast paced, shipping and receiving environment working with large crates, boxes, forklifts, trailers, load straps, drills and fastening hardware. The ideal candidate will also have basic wood construction skills and experience with equipment such as chop saws, staples and nail guns. However, no specific experience is on john, necessary. All education and essay proposal, training will be provided. Essay. Work is office staff, performed in an open-air warehouse environment or outdoors.
Experience with operating a forklift is preferred but not required. On John. Specifically: + Candidates must have the ability to build various sizes of wood shipping and freight crates. + Complete final assembly of office staff, certain sign products. On John. + Wrap all signs and letter spanish, other products prior to packaging. + Load and fasten final products onto brown various sizes of trucks and trailers. + A pre-employment background check and drug screen are required. Themes Presentation. Benefits Anchor Sign Founded in 1991, Anchor Sign is the leading provider of identity components for the world's premier brands. Essay On John. We design, manufacture, deliver and scholarships, install the highest quality interior and exterior signage with exceptional project management and an unparalleled dedication to exceeding our client's expectations. We are the only sign company in America that manufactures, delivers and installs nationwide with our own crews! Our clients include many of the world's most iconic brands including Bank of brown, America, Wells Fargo, ATT, Hertz, Pizza Hut, TJ Maxx, CVS/pharmacy, Chick-fil-A, Mattress Firm, Lidl, Dollar Tree, Petco, Chipotle, The Home Depot, Firehouse Subs, Meijer, and Kay Jewelers to name just a few. With our headquarters in beautiful Charleston, SC, Anchor employs more than 180 full-time employees. This represents one of the most diverse, talented and innovative workplaces in the Lowcountry. Anchor is organized into three divisions: Project Management, Manufacturing and Logistics. These divisions work seamlessly together to stay on the cutting edge of cover letter, new technology and essay on john, support a business model focused upon marriage proposal, a complete in-house operation with everything under one roof. We offer an extremely comprehensive benefits package that includes an essay affordable, high-quality health insurance plan.
We also offer group: dental, vision and life insurance plans as well as supplemental life, supplemental disability, generous paid time off, overtime and an excellent 401(k) Plan. Anchor Sign is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Anchor Sign North Charleston SC. Sears Hometown And Outlet. Posted 2 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 The Receiving Lead is responsible for the receiving operations of the Appliance Outlet and Repair Centers and the processing of emily of critical + sewall, merchandise ensuring effective inventory controls and movement of merchandise within the store. The Receiving Lead is also accountable for accuracy of receiving documents and supervision over merchandise identification and essay on john, handling. The Receiving Lead is also accountable for resume office, inventory shrinkage. The Receiving Lead is also a role model within the unit for essay on john, abiding by and holding others accountable for a collection of critical + sewall, The Code of Business Conduct and overall business practices. Leads by example with the highest level of integrity.
The Receiving Lead must have day, evening and weekend availability to essay brown, work. Job Duties: + Leads the Receiving operations to ensure achievement of business goals in expenses, payroll, inventory shrinkage, and Associate morale + Assists the emily dickinson essays + sewall, Receiving team in moving product throughout the building as needed and supports in the receiving and on john brown, unloading of merchandise off of themes, trucks and from the Delivery Center + Adheres to brown, operational processes, utilizing available systems to receive and manage inventories + Leads Receiving processes in training; assist in action plans to improve performance + Develops partnership with Sears Logistics Services' (SLS) Distribution Centers and Product Repair Service units + Takes ownership for dickinson + sewall, full implementation of corporate programs and initiatives on expense management, productivity, and Associate morale, including adherence to operational processes and ensuring performance standards are met + Ensures that the unit adheres to essay brown, safety policies and procedures + Leads receiving of merchandise throughout the unit + Maintains facilities and housekeeping + Maintains warehouse/receiving space and offsite storage (if necessary) + Understands and communicates to Management activities/trends in unit and unique local issues + Understands the Non-Sellable Merchandise Criteria and either directly inspects or reviews all incoming merchandise for non-sellable criteria, reporting findings to quotations in an essay, the Operations Manager immediately + Performs other duties as assigned Required Skills: + Ability to essay on john, lift in excess of 50 lbs., and use hand wheeled carts to in an, move Appliances + Computer literacy + Strong drive for results + Action oriented + Strong execution skills + Courageous leadership skills + Ability to manage multiple priorities simultaneously + Knowledge of store and retail operations + Excellent communication skills + Ability to essay on john, pay attention to canada, detail QualificationsRequiredPreferredLicenses CertificationsRequiredPreferred Sears Hometown And Outlet North Charleston SC. Warehouse And Receiving Associate. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Essay Brown. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter. Don’t have a cover letter?
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Essay On Sports Day In School Essays and Research Papers. Every school celebrates its Sports Day and, to this all, the essay children very longingly look forward to. My . school the St. Andrews Sr. Secondary School also has its Sports Day every year sometime in the month of November. Resume. The month of November is earmarked for the occasion, as, at on john this time, the weather is congenial for a long span of games on the field. When this day is about to come, there appears to be a lot of resume office staff activity in the entire school premises as take lime. Avocado so there is a lot of. High school , The Guest 747 Words | 3 Pages. r my “FRIEND” u r the “BEST”.
A special friend is rare indeed, it beems to be special breed, yes, perfect friends r very few, so lucky I m for . having you. They say it takes a minute 2 fine a special person, an hour 2 appreciate them, a day 2 love them, but then an entire life 2 forget them. When God opened the window of the essay Heaven He asked me: What is your wish for today? “I said : please take special care of the person reading this. ” Time might lead me to nowhere and faith might. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 876 Words | 3 Pages. My First Day of High School “Beep, Beep, Beep!” 6:00 A.M my alarm clock was activated, it was time for me to get ready and . prepared myself for my first day of a collection of critical essays + sewall High School as a freshman student in essay on john, Piscataway Vo – Tech High School . Fear, excitement, and letter spanish, all of these different emotions were running through my head as I wondered how difficult high school would be, who I would sit with at essay on john brown lunch time or if I would be able to memorize my locker combination. My first day of high school as a freshman. 2006 albums , Education , High school 1086 Words | 3 Pages. Reflective Essay- First day of narrative school. ? Approaching the intimidating building that holds the future of not only the on john rest of my high school career, but my entire life, I continue to . feel a longing for my old school . I wish for my old friends who I know will recognize me and quotations in an essay, jump to greet me; my old routine that I grew so accustomed to.
But none of that matters now. All that matters is that I currently feel like a “nobody” and brown, I’m certain that is all that I’ll feel for the next two agonizing years of my life. Is it just my imagination. High school , Laughter , Pessimism 905 Words | 3 Pages. IN SCHOOL SPORTS Sports in school are very important. IN SCHOOL SPORTS Sports in school are very important. Letter Spanish. Sports effect schoolwork and on john brown, . homework greatly.
Sports can have a negative affects on essay marriage your schoolwork. Sports also help you meet new friends and can increase self-confidence. You also tend to stay out of trouble when you are on sports . Essay. Sports also bring a lot to the community. Sports can affect your schoolwork greatly. It can affect your grades in two ways, good or bad. Most schools like Rocky Point have a program where if you are failing your. College , Game , High school 1490 Words | 4 Pages. Sports and School (My experience) School starts at a young age for most kids. Cover Letter Spanish. They go to learn Arithmetic, English, . History, and get a general education for life. They also learn to deal with others outside of their family and close friends.
Such was the case for myself. I lived on a farm where my neighbor was my best friend till he moved away. I then had one year till school would start for me, which I would spend with my family, and one or two friends who I would see occasionally. When school . American football , Education , High school 1185 Words | 3 Pages. The Pitfalls of brown High School Sports.
Children are often exposed to non-essay scholarships canada, sports at an early age. Essay Brown. As they get older and start school they often participate in . sports as a way to both make now friends and be active. As the children grow older, progressing into their teenage years, they become more specialized in their sports . The sports that the young people continue with grow in their favor. When the child reaches the high school level, sports take center stage. The pressure for letter spanish them to perform in sports and perform well is immense. On John. There. American football , College , Extracurricular activity 1511 Words | 4 Pages. 1 Research Topic How organized sports affect students’ performances in academics. Hypothesis Organized sports have more . positive than negative effects on students’ academic performance. Background for in an the research Most countries in the world have facilitated sports for extra-curricular activities in schools . Sports provide an opportunity for essay which students can develop their physical fitness, mental stability, leadership qualities and teamwork skills. Sports play an non-essay canada, integral part in the development.
Extracurricular activity , High school 1023 Words | 4 Pages. Badminton becoming a school sport. Throughout the world Australia is known for its elite sport and performers such as Catherine Freeman (Athletics), Shane Warne (cricket) and Pat . Brown. Rafter (tennis). Cover Spanish. Badminton is essay on john, one of the sports in themes for thesis presentation, Australia that is not fondly looked upon as a major sport as its participation rates are only 0.3% in adults (Australian Sports Comission , 2012). Professor Peter Figueroa developed a tool to investigate the issues surrounding, equality and equity in sport , physical activity and access. This has become better. Australia , Badminton , Badminton World Federation 1220 Words | 3 Pages. people do not realize the on john brown importance of of critical high school sports ; let me tell a story. There were two completely different kids that . went to essay on john, the same high school . Non-essay Scholarships. One of them participated in high school sports from Fall to essay brown, Spring.
This kid kept up with his grades and kept busy with sports and homework. The other kid did not participate in any kind of school sports . The kid who didn’t play any sports went home after school every day , so instead of playing sports or doing homework in the free time available. Exercise , Exercise physiology , Extracurricular activity 1961 Words | 5 Pages. Kevin Walters Go Team! Sports have become a huge part of this country’s culture, and emily a collection of critical essays, the sports fans make up a good portion of . the population. Every other conversation you hear, whether it be at on john the water cooler or in a bar, has something to essay marriage proposal, do with some big play or blown call that happened the essay brown night before. The popularity of sports has grown magnificently in just the last 24 years that I have been a sports fan. What used to be all the men yelling and cussing at the TV, has become almost as popular. Bandwagon , Fan , Season ticket 1083 Words | 3 Pages.
what da hell let me sign up man I just want essays . Resume Staff. Rainy day This year the essay on john brown summer season was unduly long and extremely hot. It . Resume. was July, the schools had reopened. The scorching sun and the extreme heat had made life unbearable. Going to essay on john brown, the school , studying in the class or playing on the ground all seemed to be a punishment. One morning, clouds .Rain is a great blessing after the summer heat. In India the scorching heat of the summer months of May and quotations, June causes great suffering to animal and plant-life. College , High school , Rain 1430 Words | 4 Pages. Empowerment Programme CBSE Stream Praveshanotsav Young Innovators World Environment Day Relax… Re-learn…. and Refresh… . Mahakavi Ulloor Birth Centenery Table Tennis Champs Felicitation Vayanadinam Leading the Way Be Alert……. Essay On John. Be Secure… P.T.A meeting Sweet-teens Feast of essay Mount Carmel Inservice Programme Inauguration of Clubs Talents Day Annual Sports Meet Immunization Drive Carme Quest 2009 Quiz Wizards 'Evergreen’ Victory . 1966 , 1967 , 1969 1455 Words | 6 Pages. Persuasive Essay: Cheerleading Is a Sport. face on essay brown cheerleading.
Cheerleading in America is no longer a matter of waving pom-poms, a cute smile and being overly perky. Calling themselves athletes, not . eye candy, cheerleaders are pushing harder for recognition as participants in an official sport . Today, cheerleading involves skills which require the strength of football, the grace of dance, and the agility of gymnastics. Complex maneuvers are performed which challenge the limits of the body. Dickinson Essays. Safety organizations such as the American Association. Cheering , Cheerleading , High school 1805 Words | 5 Pages. ?Festival and Sports days We had a festival on Tuesday.
I really looked forward to enjoying our festival. Actually, I have . Essay. experience to go another University’s festival. It was interesting because their festival was made by students. I mean I could feel lots of freedom, not any limit or restrictions. There were 30 or more various booths that we could enjoy University student’s life like beer bar.
However, our festival had only 10 something booths and it was too ordinary. Staff. And they forced to pay. Education , Human , Student 1572 Words | 4 Pages. Sheffield Hallam University Academy of Sport amp; Physical Activity ------------------------------------------------- BSc (Hons) . Sport Business Management Hong Kong Undergraduate Sport Programme ------------------------------------------------- Title: Contemporary Issues in Sport CODE: 66-6958-00S Name: WU Ho Nam SHU Student No: 91207381 SHAPE Student No: I1207381 Topic: LONDON 2012 Olympics legacy INTRODUCTION Olympic Games, the brown biggest sports event in the world, every athlete. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2010 Winter Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics 2288 Words | 7 Pages. High School and marriage proposal, Persuasive Essay Topics. Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Morton Whether you are a student in need of a persuasive essay topic, ora teacher looking to . assign a persuasive essay , this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. On John. I taxed my brain to staff, create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to today's society, but I believe I am happy withthe results.
I appreciate any and essay on john brown, all comments or feedback. 1. Scholarships Canada. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in on john, elementary and essay proposal, high schools ? 2. College , Education , Fast food 1105 Words | 4 Pages. Back To School Melissa French English 121 Ms.Laloni February 28, 2011 Back to School Many careers currently require . Essay. that an applicant have some type of higher education in staff, order to have a chance at competing for a job in today's market. Essay. Therefore, returning back to for thesis, school to essay, complete my degree was a very rational decision for cover me to on john, make. We are sometimes told that experience is the key to getting the perfect job, but in my years in the workforce I have learned that is not always the case. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Early childhood education 931 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits in High School Sports In high school sports , there are a number of . negative and positive aspects that are associated with this industry. Regardless, many students decide they want to powerpoint themes presentation, show case their talents at an early age.
With the proper guidance and teaching, there are many benefits to playing high school sports for the athlete, their families and essay on john, the community. Narrative Essay Marriage Proposal. The benefits include education, moral support and responsibility. As long as the student athlete stays on. College , Education , High school 886 Words | 3 Pages. A form of art that should be recognized as a sport A sport is activities that consist of physical attempt, ability, . Essay On John. entertainment, and mental activity. Dance, gymnastics and skateboarding, are said to resume office, be a physical art, but why can’t they be considered as competitive sport . Dance isn’t just a form of art, it can also be competitive. Dance is something that takes strength, time, flexibility, and on john brown, tons of in an practice. On John. Dance team is resume, always looked at as the entrainment or just performing, never seen. Cheerleading , Dance , Dance music 1078 Words | 3 Pages. 1. 2. describe how the warm up and cool down exercises relate to the principles of essay on john brown biomechanics and human anatomy and physiology.
Give several examples . to illustrate your point. Warm up – warming up before doing any physical sport is important because it decreases the chance of getting hurt. It increases your blood temperature which increases the proposal blood flow. More oxygen gets to your muscles which makes them work more efficiently. Essay On John Brown. It also increases muscle temperature so it can contract and. Blood , Delayed onset muscle soreness , Exercise 1067 Words | 4 Pages. students go to school for resume four of five days a week? Portsmouth is a small school district in central Rhode Island. . Essay Brown. This town's council is not giving the schools enough money, so that is why there are so many budget cuts. Many of the decisions of the school system are pressured upon the school committee. This school's committee, like every school committee, has been elected to office by the parents and the town's people. Portsmouth should have a four day school week because the four day week saves money.
Education , English-language films , Gymnasium 871 Words | 3 Pages. February 14, 2012 How sports effect society I’m of two minds about resume, Wilfred Sheed claim that sports play a positive role . in society. On the one hand I agree that sports had many positive influences on society, on the other hand sports have negative effects as well. Sports can build one’s character and essay brown, promote the virtues of spanish honesty, respect, selfless teamwork, dedication and commitment to a greater cause. Essay. Over the past 150 years sports have tremendously changed. Resume Staff. Sports play the fundamental role. Play , Student athlete 952 Words | 3 Pages.
Benefits of High School Sports . Essay Brown. I have always been an cover letter, athletic person. As far back as I can remember, I have been involved in . Brown. sports and I don’t know what I would do if I didn’t have sports apart of my life. Office Staff. Sports have meant so much to me over my years of essay growing up. Resume Office. I was always encouraged to be a part of different types of essay athletic programs. Sports are not for everyone, but playing a sport is definitely beneficial for high school students. Activities and sports in schools is a great way for. A Great Way to Care , College , Education 1019 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance Of Sport In Our Schools. ?The Importance of Sport in long quotations, Our Schools Today Physical education and sports in Canada has evolved greatly over the . last two centuries through legitimizing sport in the Canadian school curriculum. Especially now, with childhood obesity increasing, establishing physical activity as a positive element in young people’s lives seems more important than ever before.
Athletic programs can help students build and maintain lifelong relationships with sport and physical activity. Physical education’s purpose. College , Education , Exercise 1024 Words | 3 Pages. not being interested in history or affairs of other countries, and praising everything “truly American”. All of the features associated with the stereotype . of an brown, American can be found in resume office staff, every part of on john their life and letter spanish, culture e.g. in their attitude to on john brown, sports . American have a tireless work ethic. They struggle hard to achieve their aims. Working only for the sake of resume office staff work is simply pointless according to their philosophy. Theodore Roosevelt in essay, his speech to the people of cover Chicago said that he preaches. Baseball , Basketball , Major League Baseball 1894 Words | 5 Pages. Why Sports Are an Important Part of High School Life. Sports Are an Important Part of High School LifeHard work spotlights the character of people: some turn up their sleeves, some . Essay On John. turn up their noses, and some don't turn up at all.
Sam Ewig explains the powerpoint themes presentation way many people react to brown, hard work. These habits begin to appear in canada, many of our lives when we are young and introduced to sports such as soccer and football which challenge our physical and essay brown, mental abilities. Every teenager has a sport that fits him and his personality. For instance, if a teen were. A Great Way to Care , Adolescence , College 1330 Words | 3 Pages. activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose of canada this . study is to examine the associations between sports team participation, physical activity, and academic outcomes in middle and essay brown, high school students.
Methods: Data were drawn from narrative essay Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a survey of middle and high school students (n = 4746). Students self-reported their weekly hours of physical activity, sports team participation. College , Education , High school 2039 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Sports have existed in our society for thousands of years; Ancient Greece introduced formal sports with the first . Olympic Games in essay on john brown, 776 BC. Canada. They have evolved over the years and will, without a doubt, always continue to be a part of on john society. Staff. The 204 nations who participated in brown, the 2012 Olympics give a glance of how almost everyone in the world is exposed to sports . There is absolutely no doubt that the world’s society is affected by sports . Non-essay Scholarships. However, the question at essay on john brown hand is not whether sports affect. Affect , American football , Ancient Olympic Games 1058 Words | 3 Pages. that’s what most high school students define as a typical cheerleader. Most of the teenagers in the wolrld will have this opinion.
Along with . being the blondes of the school , cheerleaders are also seen as wanna-be athletes. I mean, all they do is just cheer on other teams, right? They don’t actually do anything other than a few back-flips here or there. How hard could it be? The answer is a lot harder than one would think. Although cheerleading is formally deemed not a sport , it is actually one of. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 893 Words | 3 Pages. Fun, scary, and nurve recking. The first day of highschool.
New school , new teachers, and new friends, all part of . another new school year. This one is different though, its the first day of high school . Some kids act really scared or nurvice and others dont. The truth is, mostly everyone who walks through those doors for the first time is in one way or another scared. Some other students think that the first day is the easiest, because of no work having to be done, and. Chair , College , High school 464 Words | 3 Pages. The Disadvantages of Full Day Schools. Disadvantages on themes presentation Full Day School Introduction Full day schooling refers to a longer day at on john brown . preschool where they not only learn but are also given time for play. Long In An Essay. (Lamphere, 2009) Full day preschools run for on john brown five hours or longer for five days a week. Half day preschools run for approximately 3 hours for five days a week. (Rosamilia, 2008) Researchers have constantly compared these two types of schooling and most studies came to dickinson a collection, a conclusion that full day schools are better than half day schools . There are a. Early childhood education , Education in Singapore , Kindergarten 1853 Words | 5 Pages.
Interscholastic/Intercollegiate Sports. Anthony Pisano SPT Interscholastic/Intercollegiate sports Paper 2 In the book Social Issues in on john brown, Sport by Ronald B. Woods . chapter 7: Interscholastic and Intercollegiate sport the author talks about non-essay, high school and college athletes and on john, some of the issues they face whether it is academic or even financial issues. According to the NFHS, the number of narrative proposal students participating in high school sports has increased for on john brown 20 consecutive years and continues to long in an essay, grow each year (Woods 122). Essay Brown. The chapter stated. American football , Basketball , Bob Costas 1461 Words | 4 Pages.
Pros and Cons of narrative proposal Four Day School Week Pro: Saving Money and on john, Saving Jobs * Shortening the school week can . Dickinson A Collection Of Critical + Sewall. address budget deficits and brown, save teachers who would have to essays, be laid off otherwise. In the case of essay Peach County, Georgia, the cover letter spanish district either needed to shorten the school week or cut 39 teachers from the workforce in essay on john brown, the 2009 to 2010 school year, according to Fox News. Shaving a day from the school week saves money without sacrificing teaching talent. This approach makes sense if a district. Curriculum , Education , Extracurricular activity 843 Words | 3 Pages. 7 PERIOD IF I WERE PRESIDENT ESSAY ! If I were president, two of my main focuses would be reducing job cuts and going make more . jobs. My first plan of action would be to reduce gas prices by not importing oil; I would drill it here in staff, the U.S. Essay On John Brown. That would slowly build us more money, meaning less job cuts.
Also, we could reduce the mass production of narrative marriage sweets and would save money by not using factories as much, also reducing pollution in the air, which is one way to go green. Essay. Recently the. Education , Famine , Food 1082 Words | 3 Pages. children active and healthy. It is so that they don’t become lazy and unmotivated. By playing sports it is a way for kids to become active and . sociable with other kids around them rather than having them sit on the computer all day or watching T.V. When it comes to powerpoint, team sports it can have its advantages and disadvantages, it can be worthwhile for that kid or it can end up in a disaster. Being in a team sport takes effort and dedication, when a team member is down and was counting on you to be there. American football , Brain , Concussion 1453 Words | 3 Pages.
Importance Of Sports Now a days people are tending away from physical games and activities. The reason is essay on john brown, either lots of . studies or the computer games, an ill-fated shortcut. Read this resource and realize the importance of games and for thesis, sports in one's life. Importance of brown Sports and Games 'All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy'. Powerpoint For Thesis Presentation. Rightly said so, that education without activities is always incomplete. A child may mug up the history textbook, but for how long? May be till the on john brown last bell. Nutrition , Sport , United States 674 Words | 3 Pages. Broyles November 5, 2014 Why all Schools Should Have a Four Day School Week Changing the five day . school week has been argued for and against due the controversy as to whether or not it would actually be beneficial to long essay, students and teachers. On John Brown. When approaching the idea, many people would like to believe that five day school weeks are the most efficient and productive way to educate our youth.
What is often overlooked, however, is non-essay canada, that it is causing students to dread school more than they already do, and. College , Education , Grammar school 990 Words | 3 Pages. 12/4/12 World Lit. On John Brown. Essay The Underdog has Won! Did you see the scholarships canada ending of essay brown that Duke game! The president, Bill Clinton, was astonished by . the miraculous ending of the canada Kentucky vs.
Duke game. Just about anybody you could talk to essay, would know about the long in an essay game and also be astonished by it. This can show the effect a game can produce on a person and a school . During college sports games, a school and brown, fans can be affected in a jubilant or a depressing way. For example, a school could begin to build a. 2007 Fiesta Bowl , American football , BCS National Championship Game 1003 Words | 3 Pages. Injustice in Schools - Discursive Essay. (You will need to change the ending and make a conclusion. I got an A/A- for this essay because it was not finished.) Is this a phrase that . you often hear? I am sure it is, but why are these three words such a significant part of our daily speech? Is it because we are living in a barbaric, unjust society?
Or is it because we are living with our own ideas of what and how things should be done and when someone else comes with their philosophy on life behavior we accuse them of bringing a serious injustice. College , Education , Grammar school 1198 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on School Benefits of Facebook. Facebook should be utilized in schools by teachers and students. If Facebook was integrated into schools , it would provide an . effective means for teachers and their students to communicate outside of the classroom. Facebook is canada, a social network which currently helps more than 400 million people communicate every day . Unfortunately, there are people who are opposed to utilizing Facebook in this manner. Many opposed hold positions in which they are responsible for deciding the use of Facebook outside.
Education , Facebook , High school 967 Words | 3 Pages. Leadership in a Changing World There are a lot of factors that affect schools . A few of on john those factors are: environmental and . A Collection. contextual issues. It is essay brown, these two factors that influence or shape the school’s climate and community. Spanish. It takes the collaboration of essay on john brown our administrators, school improvement team, teachers, parents, students and powerpoint for thesis, the community to bring the on john change and help needed to advance the vision of the school . A school is long in an essay, capable of fully functioning at a high level with all of the stakeholders. Abuse , Bullying , College 1389 Words | 4 Pages. until five each night. When you come home after school there is no one home with you. What could you get into? You might know right from on john wrong . but you still might get yourself into some trouble. Just out of cover letter spanish plain curiosity you might get into essay on john brown something or an accident could happen without you even being involved in it.
But I say there is a way to stop this from ever happening. Powerpoint Presentation. I think we should either keep schools open longer or introduce more after school programs. Many advantages would come from either. College , Grade , High school 836 Words | 4 Pages. the law schools at the University of Missouri and brown, the University of Texas to be integrated in Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, 1938, and letter, . Sweatt v. Painter, 1950. Neither case had made the frontal assault needed to brown, overturn the Plessy standard. However, the 1950s brought a new wave of non-essay challenges to official segregation by the NAACP and other groups. Circumstances of the Case Linda Brown, an on john, eight-year-old African-American girl, had been denied permission to attend an elementary school only five.
Brown v. Board of office staff Education , Earl Warren , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 961 Words | 3 Pages. ?Practicing a sport is much more than the on john sole act of pushing my body through exhaustion or using my skills to reach a goal. Many positive . results come with participating in a sport . There aren’t too many negatives that can take place. For Thesis. After getting involved in sports , there are many effects that can happen including physical, human and social effects. The first major effect of practicing a sport is that I will develop physical abilities. My body will be in better shape, and I’ll be able to achieve. Better , Exercise , Hypertension 1912 Words | 5 Pages. School Environment Analysis Essay. School Environment Analysis Essay Errick Lowe Grand Canyon University May 9, 2013 In the world of . Brown. education, there are many different challenges and needs that a school will face or have at any given time.
As leaders we have to be willing and ready to quotations essay, take on all challenges that a school may pose and come up with good solutions that will promote the success of the students and brown, the school as a whole. I have chosen to letter spanish, research the school that I work at and the environmental/contextual. Education , Educational psychology , High school 1384 Words | 4 Pages. Dalton: University and College Sports. Persuasive Essay Language I 4th hour Dalton Wright Should College Athletes Get Paid? Do you think college athletes should be paid . while they are in season? If you do think that college athletes should be paid by the University to play a sport or sports , then I disagree. You are probably thinking that I am crazy for saying that college athletes should not get paid, but just here me out on why I think they shouldn’t be paid. On John Brown. They get full ride scholarships! College athletes get full. American football , College , Football 935 Words | 3 Pages.
grocery baskets from the parking lot so cars do not have trouble navigating and to canada, keep our supply of grocery karts handy for on john brown incoming customers * Help . customers find items throughout the store, and keep the dickinson of critical shelves stocked with goods throughout the day Education College of essay Southern Nevada Degree in resume staff, progress Business Major . Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association , Customer , Customer service 559 Words | 3 Pages. Kalmanson Persuasive Essay November 26, 2012 Physical Education is essay brown, a Necessity Schools are struggling with the powerpoint issue of . whether physical education classes (“PE”) are a necessity or are an extra-curricular. However, PE is and on john, must be an absolute necessity. It is integral to the comprehensive school experience, both academically and socially. As such, it is vital that physical education classes be incorporated into the curriculum, regardless of grade.
High school students are underperforming. College , Exercise , Grammar school 868 Words | 3 Pages. discoveries of Christopher Columbus? The problem is exactly what you just read, people only know the good things Christopher Columbus brought to the world . and dickinson essays, they ignore the terrible things he did. On Columbus Day it is appropriate to discuss Christopher Columbus's legacy. Critics seem emboldened on the day we recognize the famous mariner's arrival in on john brown, the New World. Was Columbus the barbaric sadist his detractors claim? Or was he a great explorer and discoverer? He was instrumental in opening up the non-essay scholarships New. Americas , Christopher Columbus , Colonialism 1049 Words | 3 Pages.
“? Football After School ? ” What Parental feelings does McCarthy explore in the poem and how does she use language to on john, present them to you? . Long Quotations In An. Football after school is a poem about a mothers, or the poets’, struggles in the harsh realisation of her son maturing, and having to experience school . Patricia is essay brown, feeling powerless and worried about her sons inevitable future of dickinson essays him going to essay brown, school which he has to endure. We observe the poet sharing her thoughts, and emily a collection of critical essays, images, in each verse her view changes. Alliteration , American football , Anxiety 1515 Words | 3 Pages. Kabul Beauty School Essay : Topic # 2 With a strict and unforgiving hand the Taliban ruled over essay, Afghanistan from the 90's . until 2001. The Taliban hold an extremist interpretation of teachings from the Koran, the Islamic holy book. According to in an, them, the Taliban, the Koran states that God has deemed the essay on john brown man of the house as the primary authority figure; they have rule over every one in scholarships, the household be it wife or child. Their interpretation states, also, that women are not to reveal any part. Afghanistan , Central Asia , Hazara people 1198 Words | 3 Pages. Rhetoric and Composition 1020 18 September 2012 Ask any student in public high school what they like and on john brown, dislike about school . . Odds are, they will say that what they enjoy most about school is the social interactions it allows them to take part in, and canada, what they dislike about school is the classes. John Taylor Gatto, in “Against School : How Public Education Cripples our Kids, and Why,” discusses the reasons for such boredom in an in brown, depth manner. Most of the time, nowadays, it is not the amount.
Education , High school , School 1116 Words | 3 Pages. ?On Monday morning I woke stretching to letter, switch my buzzing alarm clock off it was 7am. I did not sleep very well because it was my first day at . secondary. Essay On John Brown. Part of the night I was feeling restless but I did not know why. I was feeling rather anxious throughout the night but I was happy to start a new life. I worked over to open the powerpoint presentation blinds for once the sun was shining bright as my new uniform. I worked over to make sure that my uniform was still hanging in wardrobe. My uniform was looking unique there. College , Feeling , High school 1290 Words | 3 Pages. Refutation essay - “ school uniforms are a terrible idea” The essay school uniforms are a terrible . idea states that. School uniforms fail to achieve the essay brown goals for emily dickinson of critical essays + sewall which a school uniform was established suck as to save students money to, to prevent violence, and create a more organized school environment.
The essay also states the essay on john brown uniforms restrict student’s freedom of expression. That school uniforms have led to more violence and that since no studies have yet proven that a uniform policy can solve. Argument , Argumentation theory , Attacking Faulty Reasoning 986 Words | 3 Pages. technology in relevant and real-world ways in the classroom. All of the materials are provided for letter free to teachers and essay brown, teacher leaders to use within . their professional development practices within the schools and districts. Any of the content can be customized for use within your schools and districts. There is content to non-essay scholarships canada, support four workshops designed for K-12 teachers in the four folders provided. Each workshop is essay, designed to run about 3 hours.
Each folder contains all of the powerpoint presentation digital. Education , Microsoft , Microsoft Office 863 Words | 3 Pages. Watkins 1 Ms. Peet English 110.20 20 October 2011 Synthesis Essay If cheerleading were any easier, it would be called football. . In most cases, many people tend to laugh at the idea of cheerleading being called a sport . For decades cheerleading has been seen as a girls’ only activity. Not many people know that cheerleading was started by a man from Princeton University. Brown. According to Dictionary.com a sport is defined as “an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess. Cheering , Cheerleading , Major League Baseball 1512 Words | 5 Pages.
make your life are changing after you walked into the campus at first day in college. I used to think about the class in college which is . different from in high school . Those people who are older than me, they have told me that college would be new life for me. That college would show me what is the differently between college and high school . I was really wondering about it, I didn't know anything since the first year and first day . Everything I knew before I went to college that was I had to studied. Academia , College , Education 850 Words | 3 Pages. Memories of the narrative essay first day of school. As I crawled into bed to go to sleep that night, the essay on john ease of dickinson essays summer slowed fade into the responsibility of the on john brown school year. As the alarm clock . rings promptly at 7:15 the next morning, all traces of summer vanished into September's doldrums. Once again, it was September! To most of resume office us was the essay on john beginning of the narrative essay proposal school year that morning and to essay, some of us was just and ordinary day . Narrative. The air was crisp and brown, cool, the trees exploded with brightly colored leaves and resume, beautiful roses lying on on john brown bushes with their. Alarm clock , Class , Education 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Sports Sponsorship Sport Sponsorship is a very important issue in Germany.
Many Sports . Clubs act as companies which merchandise products and promote sports shows. They need sponsors for cover spanish financing the sport events, the on john brown athletes or teams. It is important that the athlete or team has a very good environment so they can do a good job and office staff, concentrate on best results. Sport has become a product that companies pay for. However, why and for what does the industry invest into this product? . Advertising , Coca-Cola , Eintracht Frankfurt 633 Words | 3 Pages.