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The Dilema

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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Perspectives of The Dilema Assisted Living Facility Caregivers. Clarity Relevance of the Study. As the basis for describing the background of the problem this paper uses the it resume, work “Knowing the Resident with Dementia: Perspectives of Assisted Living Facility Caregivers” by Joyce Rasin and The Dilema, Donald D. Kautz published in the Journal of Gerontological Nursing. This research reveals the attitudes of two different groups of essays cessation caregivers: those relying on behavior-centered knowledge and person-centered knowledge.

This work also sheds light on the diverse constituencies involved in direct provision, funding, and The Dilema, evaluation of health care delivery to older Americans. Fuel Essays? The combination of practical research and policy expertise illustrates a rich diversity of The Dilema perspectives for it resume the modern assisted living facility caregivers. The Dilema? The study addresses the ongoing debate over knowledge used by nurses’ issues, particularly as these things apply to older population health care needs. Le Parfum? Several common themes emerge in The Dilema, the study and are highlighted here to present an overview of le parfum resume salient issues related to the role of the The Dilema, gerontological nurses, choice and disposable, delivery of retiree health services. We can write a custom essay on Health Care for you! Researchability of the The Dilema, Study Problem. This is a study about using different approaches in providing health care for retirees. One objective of this research is to evaluate several explanations for differing attitudes in health insurance services for people with dementia in essay building, assisted living facilities. These explanations are often complex, as illustrated by The Dilema, the authors of the it resume, study.

As the debate on health care for people with dementia continues, a second objective of this research is to underscore the The Dilema, need to focus on patients’ special health requirements. Policy discussions frequently have overlooked both the costs of offering appropriate health coverage fro people with dementia and the benefits of providing this type of health care to the elderly. As many experts note, the le parfum, elderly are caught between the pincers of reform proposals: prospective benefits legislation that certainly will affect employer willingness to The Dilema, continue support for expensive retiree health benefits, and Medicare changes that also may curtail benefits obtainable from the portraying a person, government. The fact that these reforms often are targeted at the types of medical care most often consumed by older people makes this group deserving of special attention. The Dilema? The last and, perhaps, most important goal of this study is to offer new perspectives and evaluative tools that then may be used to essays smoking cessation, examine these as well as other health practices concerns. To this end, the The Dilema, research supplies an unusually rich combination of facts and philosophical insights, derived from ethicists and academicians as well as from writing, medical and benefits practitioners. These discussions should inform the public by supplying a much needed perspective on health care for people with dementia in assisted living facilities.

Adequacy and The Dilema, Relevance of the Literature Review. As with all disciplines, nursing’s theories are composed of it resume writing concepts and the propositional statements connecting these concepts in a systematic way. As the products of science, they form a central part of our knowledge base. However, for most of the The Dilema, twenty-first century nursing has been dominated by a wide array of theories from other disciplines. Rasin and Kautz suggest that the ultimate justification for it resume writing the existence of The Dilema theory is to give humans a view of their world which may help them describe, explain or predict events, or prescribe actions which will enable events to occur or not. Theories are like different lenses or maps and each one will offer the user a particular focus or topography. For instance, a map of the underground sewer system of Paris would not be very useful if you were trying to find your way through the city streets.

Similarly, a pair of a person opera glasses would not serve your purpose if you wanted to view the night sky. Theory is The Dilema, a distinct and well-articulated system of concepts and propositions rooted explicitly in portraying, a philosophy of nursing and intended solely to guide nursing practice and research. The Dilema? If we accept this definition then we must be careful in our selection. If we choose the smoking, wrong map we may find ourselves at a different destination from the one chosen. Therefore, perhaps a central selection criterion is fitness for purpose in other words, does the theory serve the purpose for which it is The Dilema, intended? If we accept that nursing theories have unique perspectives, then each theory will determine how nurses assess a patient, plan care, intervene and review outcomes. Furthermore, different nursing theories will have varying influences on how we perceive patients. For instance, one theory may encourage dependence by stressing that the nurse should do everything for a person the patient, while another may encourage independence by stressing that the nurse should teach the patient about self-care. The authors also imply that practitioners should feel empowered by the theories they select, and they and their patients should have ownership of The Dilema them. By using their power to impose a theory on practicizing nurses, managers and academics are being allowed to le parfum, define expert nursing . Rasin and Kautz argue that, without a strong orientation towards the work of theorists and the work of practitioners, the basic requirements for a profession are missing.

They state that only if we are able to prove that this link exists will we be legitimate contenders for professional status. Agreement of Purpose, Design, and Methods. The Dilema? Interestingly, behavior-centered may challenge the necessity of a pragmatic link between theory and practice. In a way it can be explained that some theories are not intended to be 100% clinically relevant. There is something attractive about this view. Theories are, by their very nature, abstract, so they originate from, and can lead to, abstract thinking. They stretch your perceptions, providing new insights and interesting and creative ways of looking at cessation, the world of nursing.

That is part of their value. Since many are at the forefront of new knowledge development, they are extending the The Dilema, discipline’s frontiers. Therefore, by definition, they cannot coincide with what is now being practiced to do so would limit their vision and restrict nursing within a time warp. To make all theories clinically relevant would hamper the essay on national, development of highly abstract (non-practical) ideas that might eventually prove more valuable to nursing. Alternatively, there is The Dilema, also attraction in the opposing position of person-centered knowledge. This approach illustrates that regardless of whether nurses work as researchers, educators, theorists, administrators or practitioners, it must be realized that they are in a practice profession with the client at the receiving end of that practice. Accepting this, theories should have a direct bearing on client care. If they do not, their value is it resume writing, open to question. Perhaps the true answer comes somewhere in between these two approaches. It is possible to argue that there are two types of theory, the realistic, which coincide with the views of practitioners and current practice, and the idealistic, which may appear alien to contemporary practitioners. This study reflects on the relationship between theory and research.

Authors imply that research without theory is analogous to The Dilema, a team of bricklayers, each making a brick in isolation from other bricklayers and with no blueprint to follow. They throw the bricks together into a large pile confident that, somehow, a house will emerge. Without theory, therefore, nursing knowledge would be a mass of data, statistics and observations with no coherence or understanding. Knowledge is of little use without understanding. Knowledge is hydrogen fuel essays, provided through research studies while understanding is gained by theory. It is a reciprocal relationship; while knowledge can increase in nursing for a time without understanding, understanding is The Dilema, not possible without new knowledge being developed. According to Lorraine Walker (1971), the result of writing theory being unable to The Dilema, keep pace with knowledge development is stagnation of the discipline.

Suitability of the Sampling Procedure and the Sample. Five groups of caregivers were selected with the total of essays cessation 23 participants. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of the sample chosen was their clarity. Clarity may be rated as high or low. In this case it was rated high. The analyst should ask if the theory is written and presented clearly and if the language used is understandable. This represents semantic clarity.

You should ask the following questions: Are key terms defined? Are concepts and assumptions implicit? If explicit, are they stated clearly? You should also note any evidence of tautology: Is there unnecessary overuse of The Dilema words? Note too if there is structural clarity. This occurs when the prepositional links between the concepts are clear to the reader and any diagram representing the theory can be understood without a great deal of difficulty. If you cannot make sense of the theory (and you have really tried), it has low clarity. The hypothesis should be elegant in its simplicity; that is, the theorist should have chosen the simplest, most parsimonious format possible to get across the theoretical message. If we want hypothesis, practice and research to as alternative fuel, link appropriately, theory should be easily understood if it is to The Dilema, gain the attention and commitment of the hard-pressed clinicians. How can anyone use a theory if they cannot comprehend it? This applies equally well to diagrammatic representations.

If a theory is composed of a confusing mixture of geometric lines, circles, triangles and writing, squares, busy practitioners will not be impressed. The Dilema? Considering the complexity of essays smoking nursing, all hypotheses cannot be presented in a simple manner. You may think a theory is The Dilema, complex and accept this fact because its concepts and assumptions relate to very difficult issues within practice. Therefore, you should make a judgment as to whether you think a hypothesis is excessively simple or unnecessarily complicated in its content and form. Correctness of Analytical Procedures. All the components within the hypothesis should support each other and be free from disposable thesis, contradictions. As with clarity, consistency can be rated high or low.

Look carefully to The Dilema, note if inconsistencies are explicit or implicit. Resume? The following types of inconsistency may be identified: • Inconsistency in terms: are definitions of The Dilema concepts consistent with later assumptions? For instance, a theorist may define people as entire communities, yet the resume, assumptions within the body of the theory may relate specifically to individual clients. • Inconsistency in interpretation: if a theory adopts a holistic stance about The Dilema, health care but is reductionist when describing care (e.g., having a large biophysical emphasis). • Inconsistency in principle: a theory may highlight the importance of clients being able to have choices yet be prescriptive in the interventions it supports. Furthermore, inconsistency in principle may be observed when a theory that has its basis in a behavioral paradigm includes concepts that are better related to a system’s paradigm. Examining the perspectives of different theories may be like looking through telescopes of varying focal lengths. Selecting a grand theory would be like looking through the wide-angled end of a telescope. Here, the selectors require a broad theory which can be used in many different situations with many different types of patient. While the grand theory will not specify explicit interventions, it will give them a framework for viewing the essay on national building, world and an assessment template for practice. Selecting a mid-range or practice theory would be like focusing a telescope on a particular nearby scene, where more detail is observed but the surrounding landscape cannot be seen in its entirety. Here, a theory is The Dilema, required for a particular patient-care situation and in the case of a practice theory a guideline is presented for essays cessation nursing action.

Currently there are more grand theories available for The Dilema selection than there are mid-range or practice theories, but this situation is smoking cessation, changing rapidly. When selecting a nursing theory the relevance to practice is central. She suggests that the The Dilema, person who is choosing the essays smoking, theory should seek answers to the following questions: • Does the theory have direct relevance for the way in which nursing is practiced? • Does the The Dilema, theory describe real or ideal care? • Have its assumptions and propositions been tried and tested? • Does it deal with the resources which are necessary for good care? • Does it guide the building, use of the The Dilema, nursing process? • Does it provide practicing nurses with good direction for clinical actions? • Are the concepts within the theory too abstract to be applied in practice? • Is the language of the theory easy to it resume, understand? The prospect of any sort of rationing in The Dilema, health services is particularly important to the elderly for many reasons. As a group, the elderly tend to suffer from more chronic illnesses, which are generally incurable, than other groups. Many chronic illnesses, like rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, can be managed effectively over long periods, but doing so requires an ongoing level of expenditures. Some chronic ailments are particularly problematic because their treatment often means that those suffering from them will come to suffer additional chronic ailments that require further treatment. Also, the elderly suffer disproportionately from critical illnesses associated with old age and, ultimately, death. As a result, they consume disproportionately greater amounts of health service resources. Advances in medical science and the underlying demographics of the essays, American society portend that, in the future, the elderly will need even more health services than now.

The general level of resources that will be available to provide medical services to The Dilema, the elderly and smoking cessation, the allocation of those resources cannot be ignored. The Dilema? Before investigating why Americans feel that all medical services should be available to everyone and before investigating whether this philosophy should be curtailed, it is important to assess the nature of the resource limitations giving rise to the debate over resume, health care rationing. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on The Dilema Health Care topics are traced by plagiarism detection systems. All samples online are plagiarized. Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for school, college or university. Why not to get a 100% original custom essay at PapersMart.net? Would you like to get a free quote? If you need a custom essay on Health Care feel free to contact our online essay writing company.

Our professional academic writers who hold Master#8217;s and PhD degree will write a 100% non-plagiarized essay, term paper, research paper or dissertation for a person essay you. Our custom essay service produces high-quality custom essays on The Dilema any topics and disciplines. Timely delivery and confidentiality guarantee! http://papersmart.net - will write a custom essay, research paper, term paper, thesis or dissertation on any topic and discipline. 100% non-plagiarized papers from it resume, professional writers. Affordable prices. http://www.essaylib.com - is place where you can order custom essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations starting from $10/page! It is one of the best essay helpers available online. The Dilema? http://www.effectivepapers.com - students can buy custom written essays, research papers, term papers, thesis papers, dissertations, proposals, book reports, speeches starting from $12/pg!

A lot of students experience difficulties in getting good samples of essays, research papers, dissertations. Actually it's very difficult to disposable rocket, find effective and The Dilema, professionally written academic papers online, especially for free. That's why we decided to le parfum, provide college and university students with great sample essays, research paper samples, sample term papers, university dissertation samples and even sample Master's thesis papers on the best writing topics. Best Sample Papers is designed for The Dilema those who are looking for essay interesting essay samples, college research paper samples and term paper examples or free dissertation samples on any disciplines. At Best Sample Papers you can find academic paper samples in APA, MLA or Turabian format. All free sample papers are sorted in categories, tag cloud and archives that makes navigation very convenient for any student who need professional paper writing help for The Dilema free.

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How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak resume. This guide will help you to The Dilema, write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs. Cover Letter Builder.

Create your cover letter in essays smoking cessation 15 minutes. How to Write a Resume. Learn how to write a resume in The Dilema 3 Steps. Are you looking for portraying, a follow up email or letter instead? Check out our comprehensive Follow Up Guide. This is a very simply written guide — follow it, and The Dilema you will land interviews faster. Don’t forget to double check! Be sure to use our checklist to easily find out disposable what you may be missing on your letter. The Dilema. It is portraying a person free to download. Click Here to Download.

Our Cover Letter Checklist. Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for a job. The Dilema. It is meant to: Introduce yourself to the hiring manager. Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and it resume powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to see how a cover letter in your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library. To begin, include both the employer’s and your contact information.

See the example below: While the example above demonstrates the information you need to The Dilema, include in the section, there are various ways to format it. Check out the cover letter designs below to portraying, get more ideas on how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying. Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression. Put yourself in the hiring manager’s shoes for a second. The Dilema. Would you like to be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the year 1865, and rocket “to whom it may concern” is very irritating to hiring managers.

You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research. The Dilema. Look through the le parfum resume, company’s website, LinkedIn, or even give the company a call to ask for the hiring manager’s name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an effort. In the first paragraph, begin by telling the The Dilema, employer the position you are applying for and how you learned about the opportunity. The rest of essay, this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of how they align with the goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by The Dilema the hiring manager. Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and abilities will allow you to meet the company’s needs. To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and writing phrases from the The Dilema, job description in writing your cover letters. No bombast!

The rule of thumb is that you’re allowed to be as boastful as you want – so long as you have the The Dilema, evidence to back it up ! To go the it resume, extra mile, do some research about the company, and try to find out what they are doing — and why — given the The Dilema, current state of their industry. It Resume Writing. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is called the “call to action.” Inform them that you’d love to The Dilema, get interviewed. Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in a week if you don’t hear back. Thank them for spending the time to read your letter. Aside from the content on writing the page, the actual look and feel of the document is also an important aspect of the your letter. Elements such as margins, font size and style, and The Dilema alignment all factor in to the hiring manager’s overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet.

If you are having trouble fitting everything on one page, there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the content look crammed together. Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Anything below 12 can strain the eyes. Font style is really a matter of preference. Try to choose one that looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on their website. Keep in mind that different styles will change the size of the disposable, font. The Dilema. Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems. If you don’t know what an smoking, ATS is, you absolutely must read up on it before sending in your next job application.

Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to statistically determine whether to let you through to the next stage. 70% of The Dilema, jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is designed to read through letters as well, while others are not. You might as well be completely prepared. The good news is that simply by following the instructions we’ve written above, your letter should already be in good shape. If you’ve responded directly to the hiring manager’s job description, and included language from it in your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully? It depends on the hiring manager. Some use the letters to “weed out” candidates out of a huge stack, while others believe that the candidate’s interview skills are more important.

Either way, you’re going to need to write a strong letter, in order to give yourself a higher chance of portraying a person, getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for All – Copy, Paste, Fill in The Dilema the Blank. Simply click the section that best reflects your current life situation and it resume writing work experience, then choose the “tone” of cover letter that best suits your personality. Before you start – 5 tips for filling in these template letters: In our templates, you’ll be filling in the blanks that look like [this]. Here’s some help for filling in these trickier ones: [insert positive trait] – here’s a list of positive traits you can use to describe yourself [insert 1-3 soft skills] – here’s a list of soft skills you can use to The Dilema, describe your abilities [insert 1-3 hard professional skills] – our cover letter samples or resume by industry pages should help you brainstorm [insert GPA] – only essays smoking, insert if your GPA is above a 3.5 [insert your degree] – style it this way, including the parentheses – (BS Engineering)

My name is [your name]. I am thrilled to be applying for the [position] role in your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner. Given these requirements, I believe I am the The Dilema, perfect candidate for the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and as alternative essays peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into The Dilema the [name of essays cessation, open position] role at The Dilema, your company.

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Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. Download HR-Approved Cover Letter Template Designs. We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs. Just click the any template below to download the one that best suits you. I have “Red Flags” in my work or personal history — should I address them in my Cover Letter? ‘Red flags’ are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter. A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the essays smoking, way a hiring manager views your job application. While many red flags should be directly addressed in a cover letter, some others are best left for the job interview stage. The following list is of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags. If any apply to you, click to learn more about The Dilema how to effectively handle it so it doesn’t become a roadblock in your efforts to resume, secure your next job. i need cover letter for my resume.

You can either write your own cover letter with the The Dilema, guide above or use our software to build one instead. If you want to use our software just go to our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/ What about references? Can they go on essay on national the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for The Dilema, those? References should NOT be included on rocket thesis your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at a later date if they are interested in doing so.

(Note: If the The Dilema, employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field! Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. It Resume Writing. you have explained clearly what i need to do. We are glad that the article could help!

I just applied for a $14/hr job on Indeed. After 6 years of working for the same company for $10/hr…. I’m praying this cover letter is enough to land me the The Dilema, job. Writing. I converted the The Dilema, “Sales Cover Letter” into a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and needs… but it turned out to be one professional piece of work when I was finished.

I can’t thank you all enough for this posting. I’ll be back to update if I land the job. We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to hear back from you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on it resume your job hunt!

This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and The Dilema they had asked for a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Googled it.. Rocket. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in full-time employment. The Dilema. I need to as alternative, create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs?

Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in The Dilema this position before. Cessation. What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the The Dilema, information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out essay our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in The Dilema answering your question. Very true and disposable informative.

Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Cover letter will be easy for The Dilema, me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt!

This was helpful. is essays smoking it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before.

Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and The Dilema i basically have that. Please lead me through…

We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to resume, lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to The Dilema, format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful.

Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to on national building, write it. Please help! We have plenty of The Dilema, industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot.

Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Portraying A Person. Thank you so much for The Dilema, making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for rocket, your support. The Dilema. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in it resume response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the The Dilema, name of the on national building, person in charge of hiring. This is true of many job postings on Craigslist, for The Dilema, example. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend?

Many job seekers also run into this issue. Writing. When the posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on Google. You may find the The Dilema, job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to disposable rocket thesis, forward this to a client of mine I was just talking to The Dilema, him about this.

Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and smoking cessation now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is The Dilema wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to writing, write. please advise. Some of the contents from The Dilema, your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. Disposable Rocket. If you read the above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to check out The Dilema our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for le parfum, a managerial position in The Dilema the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples.

We are in resume the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in the list. In the The Dilema, meantime, follow the guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the on national, name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and The Dilema then space 4 times and type your name. Smoking Cessation. You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it.

Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for The Dilema, an experienced welder, One of the smoking, requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the The Dilema, traffic fine and le parfum get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on The Dilema my resume or by telephone or in rocket thesis person or not at The Dilema, mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the disposable, traffic fine and The Dilema get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. Essay. All about the The Dilema, money. which I happen to it resume, be in short supply of. Thanks again.

We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. The Dilema. Can someone explain?

Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started. Best of luck! How to address gaps in employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by depression and unable to work from 2005-2008. Got a job in hydrogen fuel essays 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom. Ready to go back to work again. How do I address the The Dilema, gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites?

I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words. One of the it resume writing, easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to The Dilema, use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and it resume see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for The Dilema, leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the it resume writing, job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. The Dilema. So in fuel that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given.

Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. The Dilema. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate.

Good luck! So i have been asked to resume, email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in The Dilema the same exact role. I left for on national, another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement.

In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before. The Dilema. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only essays, had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to The Dilema, do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field?

Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and essays want to The Dilema, retire from my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to “put my best foot forward” when applying for a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before? When applying for le parfum resume, a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in before, the The Dilema, first thing you should do is come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and resume. Essay Building. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the company’s address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to.

If you are not sure, then use the company’s address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. The Dilema. Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out of the work force for about a year and a half due to birthing children and staying home for them. I am wondering if this is resume something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include? Great question!

If your work gap is longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an The Dilema, explanation in le parfum resume your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the The Dilema, focus of your cover letter on your experience and fuel essays qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the The Dilema, time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to essays smoking, take a break, so to speak. Good luck!

I’m a college dropout and I couldn’t decide on The Dilema which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in portraying such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the The Dilema, template above.

Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an portraying essay, idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. The Dilema. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out personal information. Thanks for the suggestion!

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To get started with Code Academy today, choose from The Dilema one of their top courses: Try one of these amazing courses today: Offering over 1,500 courses from le parfum 140 partner institutions in 20 countries, Coursera is a leader in providing universal access to The Dilema a world class online educational experience. Their approach, based on the concept of mastery learning, ensures that students are comfortable with the material before moving to the next section and when combined with a peer assessment component allows students to receive immediate feedback to improve their experience. For those wanting a deeper delve into a specific topic or recognition of your skill mastery from an employer, Cousera offers Specialization certificates. Each Specialization provides a guided experience in a variety of subjects and portraying, ends with a Capstone Project to demonstrate your mastery of the topic to a current or future employer. To get started with Coursera today, choose from The Dilema one of their top courses: Try one of these amazing courses today: Distinguishing itself from building other online educational providers, DataCamp offers a current collection of 13 courses designed exclusively around data science. Using partnerships with academia and The Dilema, companies in the business world, DataCamp offers in portraying a person, demand data analysis skills in the R and Python programming languages. Each introductory programming course is offered free of charge so students can gage their interest before delving into more advanced topics for a monthly fee.

Courses are taught in an interactive programming environment which does not require downloading the programming languages so all you need is an internet connection to get started. To get started with DataCamp today, choose from one of their top courses: Try one of these amazing courses today: Offering 820 courses in 30 subjects from 85 institutional partners, Edx provides free high quality education to The Dilema anyone, anywhere. With its foundations in academia, each course brings together experts in government, academia, and industry to provide an in depth education experience on your schedule.

For those looking for a more structured experience, Edx offers XSeries Programs which allow students to delve deeply and develop masterly over a particular topic of interest. At the same time you are learning, EdX is partnering with top institutions who are conducting research and using their findings to further improve the learning experience. To get started with EdX today, try one of their top courses: Try one of these amazing courses today: With over 140 courses in 13 categories from 76 partner institutions, FutureLearn fosters a unique social and interactive learning environment. The FutureLearn approach is le parfum built on the notion that sharing and debating ideas is how people learn best. Courses use storytelling principles to take learners through a narrative journey involving interactions with other learners, opportunities to reflect on The Dilema, what is essays smoking cessation learned, and The Dilema, celebration of the accomplishments of each learner. FutureLearn organizes its courses into on national building, a series of The Dilema, collections for learners looking to focus on portraying, a specific subject but also offers individual courses for casual learners. To get started with FutureLearn today, choose from The Dilema one their top courses:

* In absence of any rating structure or participatory numbers, courses are chosen to give the user a general overall of it resume writing, courses available at this site* Try one of these amazing courses today: Starting from the humble origins of The Dilema, one man tutoring his nephew, Khan Academy has grown into a leading provider of a person, world class education. Keeping with its original intent, Khan Academy provides over The Dilema 36 million learners with a personalized learning experience for le parfum, students of all ages. Each student has access to courses anytime, anywhere and can view their progress through the The Dilema personalized learning dashboard. Each course is designed not only to develop masterly of a subject but to encourage a mindset of lifelong learning. Khan Academy also offers a unique coaching platform so instructors or parents can view the it resume individual strengths and weaknesses of students after each course. To get started with Khan Academy today, choose from one of their top courses: * In absence of any rating structure or participatory numbers, courses are chosen based topic areas recommended by The Dilema, the site itself* Try one of these amazing courses today: Offering over 4,000 courses in it resume writing, 12 subject areas, Lynda helps learners achieve their full potential on their schedule.

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What truly sets Udacity apart from competitors are the Nanodegrees designed to get students hired as Data Analysts, Mobile Developers, Web Developers etc. with leading technology companies. They are so confident that their degrees will get students hired that they offer partial or full tuition reimbursements if you are not hired with 6 months of completing the degree. To get started with Udacity today, chose from one of their top courses: Try one of these amazing courses today: Focusing strictly on you and resume, what you want to The Dilema learn, Udemy offers over 35,000 courses from 19,000 instructors in over 190 countries on essays, a wide variety of topics.

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5 Resume Tips for a Project Manager. Hiring managers are looking for individuals that can wear multiple hats on a given day, and will determine who they call in for an interview based in large part on how well the applicants’ resumes match up to these needs. One essential to a project manager title is the ability to The Dilema shift focus and essentially demonstrate that in an interview. Experience is one of the biggest advantages applicants have for this position. Certification and hydrogen fuel, education is also important, and should be highlighted alongside your professional experience and achievements. With this in mind, there is a whole host of specific hard and The Dilema, soft skills that hiring managers are specifically looking for.

In this article, we’ll go over five resume tips for project managers. The format of your resume matters, as does the order in essays smoking cessation, which items are presented. The Dilema? Since project management is a skill and experience heavy position, you want to choose a resume format that emphasizes these qualifications. Portraying A Person Essay? While a functional resume might seem to be the obvious choice, a hybrid of chronological format is The Dilema, more likely to be well received by a hiring manager in today’s market. Functional resumes emphasize experience and skills, however they do so in a way that leaves hiring managers wary of the actual qualifications of the applicant as it is commonly used to hide employment gaps and cover up lack of direct experience in the position. A chronological resume is the go-to standard and has been for some time. It allows you to list the essay, positions you’ve had over the past 5-10 years in reverse chronological order, listing your responsibilities, qualifications, and achievements in each position. A hybrid resume format gives you a great way to display specific qualifications and skills while still giving that important chronological work history hiring managers expect. The Dilema? Emphasize Hard Skills. Hard skills are vital a project manager. You use them every day, and a good project manager will continue to grow their list of hard skills throughout their career.

These skills range from practical and writing, general to task-oriented. Whether you’re a project manager that specializes in construction, IT, or other industries, having hard skills that align with the position you are applying for is key to your success. You can get a really good idea of the hard skills a hiring manager is The Dilema, looking for by reading the job posting carefully. Highlight proper nouns such as specific software applications or propriatary systems. If any of these apply to you, find a way to work them in your resume. Either list them along with examples of your achievements in essays, your work history or bring them in your qualifications summary if you are going with a hybrid resume format. Certifications are a great way to prove hard skills outside of education and direct experience. The Dilema? We’ll get into certifications in more detail later on. Soft skills are the bread and butter of disposable rocket a project manager. These include skills that are difficult to train, such as personality traits like patience and quick thinking.

For project managers in particular, skills such as organization and accountability. Find a way to include soft skills in your resume as directly as possible. Generally, these are implied, however modern resume tracking software depends on The Dilema keywords to filter out candidates. Consider listing soft skills and following them with an example from your work experience. A Person Essay? For example, here is a bullet point from a job in a resume work history.

Accountability: Created a simple and straightforward metrics system for The Dilema tracking and developing project participants resulting in a 25% increase in rocket thesis, team efficiency. Soft skills are sought after by The Dilema employers for a number of on national building reasons. They are difficult to train, unlike hard skills, and hiring a candidate that is able to The Dilema demonstrate their ability to meet this criteria is a good thing for the company. It helps to list projects you’ve worked on within your work history, but going too far into detail can make the hiring manager’s eyes glaze over. Think about the stories you can tell in the interview! List the most important and relevant projects in your work history. Focus on one or two bullet points (at most) for each of them, or even just a brief description of a single sentence. Keywords are more important that details. Remember that resume software has filters that narrow down candidates before the hiring manager even gets a chance to look at your resume.

Your challenge is to pack as many job-specific keywords as possible into your resume without making it long-winded or off topic. Here are the only questions that you should feel compelled to answer regarding a project in it resume, your resume: What was your role in The Dilema, the project? What made the project a success? What was the size of cessation your team? Resumes should be one or two pages at most. You really only The Dilema, have up to 30 seconds to earn an smoking cessation, interview spot here, and your resume should be able to convey the important details in The Dilema, less than that time. Certifications, education, and other knowledge-based qualifications are a great thing to have, and should be included in essays smoking, your resume. Unless you are working with a high school diploma and The Dilema, work experience alone, a certifications and/or education section on your resume is a great thing to have. IT project managers, for example, often have to building have at least a working knowledge of the The Dilema, systems they’re overseeing development for.

Having a certification in those systems is portraying essay, a big plus in the eyes of many companies. If you don’t have certifications, think about obtaining some. The Dilema? If you have a job already that provides free or incentivised classes and/or certification tests, these could prove useful in a person essay, future job searches. Any additional training is a plus, especially when dealing with large companies that hire based on firm qualifications. Online classes through respected providers, any personal-time projects that relate to The Dilema the job you’re wanting, and it resume writing, more could be worth mentioning in either the resume or the cover letter to increase your chances. Scan your Project Manager Resume and job description here:

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flood geology essay History of the Collapse of Flood Geology and a Young Earth. And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and The Dilema, without with pitch. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the resume, ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. Picture below right: Illustration of the building of Noah's Ark from The Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514), a native of The Dilema Nuremberg, one of the most sophisticated printed books published before 1500 AD, from the thesis, Beloit College library. From the mid-seventeenth (c. 1650 AD) to the mid-eighteenth century (c. 1750 AD), a range of British mathematicians, naturalists, and The Dilema, clerics from the Church of England attempted to it resume writing demonstrate that belief in a global biblical deluge was perfectly compatible with extrabiblical knowledge and the latest theoretical developments in mechanistic science. They maintained that the fact that such a deluge had occurred could now be established not only on the basis of biblical authority but also on mathematical and scientific grounds.

Their various theories reflected different conceptions of The Dilema natural theology, the roles of essays cessation science and theology, and the bearing of Scripture on the interpretation of nature. Their diluvial cosmogonies provided a mainstream scientific paradigm that stimulated hard thought, biblical exegesis, widespread geological observation, and some of the earliest geological experiments. But if these seventeenth-century cosmogonies were on the whole plausible given the limitations of the geological science of the day, they were nevertheless seriously flawed in other ways -- perhaps most notably by The Dilema, the fact that their proponents based them on relatively small bodies of favorable evidence and tended to ignore damaging evidence. The cosmogonists generally avoided the insurmountable problems of animal distribution and migration, for it resume instance, and resisted determinations that geological strata are not arranged in order of specific gravity. On the other hand, the theorists were for the most part committed to The Dilema providing honest scientific accounts of physical processes associated with the cessation, flood, and they resisted making appeals to miracle in order to resolve difficulties in those accounts. In the end, the old diluvial cosmogonies fell victim to their own success. The genuine spirit of scientific inquiry that they engendered and stimulated gradually produced a wealth of geological discoveries that undercut the premises of diluvialism. All manner of The Dilema different field observations indicated that geological strata could not be the remains of layers of soft sediments deposited together at the same time. Furthermore, the plethora of exegeses of the deluge account raised doubts in many scholarly minds about smoking cessation, whether the The Dilema, Bible was being properly used in trying to rocket thesis settle questions of geological history. By the middle of the The Dilema, eighteenth century, few competent proponents of writing diluvialism remained. The basic pattern of the The Dilema, attempts to accommodate extrabiblical information during this period is by now familiar.

Scholars began with the assumption that the biblical flood narrative describes a literal universal deluge and then sought evidence of that event using the best scientific tools and evidence available to them. As evidence accumulated, however, their theories became increasingly untenable, and when that happened, all those who were dedicated to le parfum resume the truth of the matter -- scientists and theologians alike -- abandoned the The Dilema, discredited hypotheses and cessation, began to look elsewhere. The Collapse of Diluvial Cosmogonies. The discovery of the New World disclosed dozens of hitherto unknown animals. Despite the serious problems raised for the concept of a global deluge by this new knowledge, Christian intellectuals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries continued to seek ways to explain the deluge in The Dilema, scientific terms.

Even though some orthodox scholars such as Voss or Stillingfleet proposed a more restricted flood, the church at hydrogen as alternative fuel essays large felt little need to adjust its long-held view of a strictly literal universal flood. The Dilema? Christians rested secure in rocket thesis, the belief that the calculations of respected scholars established the point that the ark could hold all known animals including those of the New World. The problems of migration from the ark were awkward but not insurmountable. There was no evidence to dispute the existence of former land bridges or to show that animals could not rapidly diversify because of The Dilema environmental factors. Of course, the building, proposal of rapid diversification of animals after their emergence from the ark posed significant problems in its own right, since it presumes a rate of change vastly more accelerated than that presumed by any conventional evolutionary theory, and quite unaccountable in terms of any accepted understanding of biology. Moreover, some held out the hope that animals that had been found living only in the Americas might yet be discovered closer to The Dilema the Middle East in still unexplored areas of Africa or Asia.

All of which is to as alternative essays say that at the end of the seventeenth century, there was still not enough biological evidence to convincingly challenge traditional views of the capacity of the ark. The same was the case with geological evidence. The Dilema? Numerous writers gave various accounts of the deluge using the latest knowledge of physics, astronomy, rock strata, fossils, and earth structure. Although this evidence was adequate to uncover flaws in the details of various flood theories, it proved insufficient to challenge the basic thesis of a global deluge. Global diluvialism represented mainstream scientific thought in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Many outstanding British biblical commentators of the eighteenth century gave little hint of any awareness of the difficulties attendant on cessation, the discovery of the Americas. They showed even less inclination to modify their conception of the flood as derived by The Dilema, biblical exegesis. Even commentators who did note the problems were not of a mind to alter long-held traditional exegeses. The commentaries of the prominent divines Matthew Henry (1662-1714), John Wesley (1703-1791), John Gill (1697-1771) and Thomas Scott (1747-1821) represent a spectrum of British theological thought in the eighteenth century. Smoking Cessation? For example, in his classic Commentary on the Holy Bible (1706), the English Nonconformist minister Matthew Henry stated that the The Dilema, flood came 1,656 years after creation, that Noah did not need to essays collect the animals since they came of their own accord, and that secondary causes were probably used to supply floodwater. The Dilema? [1] Likely aware of calculations showing that rainfall alone could not have produced the requisite floodwater and possibly acquainted with the widely held views of the diluvialists, Henry wrote that the resume, flood came from the abyss. During the flood the The Dilema, normal hostility between animals ceased, but afterward they reverted to true character.

Henry also suggested that the tops of mountains may have been washed down somewhat by the waters and that the heat of the sun helped to dry up the waning waters. On the whole, he paid scant attention to disposable rocket thesis extrabiblical evidence or to The Dilema the problems that had plagued scholars during the previous century. Le Parfum? Henry intended his commentary to be devotional and practical, and he expressly left the critical questions to Poole 's Synopsis . The great founder of Methodism, John Wesley , omitted virtually all dialogue with relevant authors and current debates about the nature of the The Dilema, deluge in his exegesis of the text. He simply asserted the building, universality of the flood, the preservation of all species aboard the ark, and the ability of The Dilema waters of the it resume, deep and rains to cover the earth fully. Once the flood was over, he said, the The Dilema, heat of the sun exhaled some of the water, and subterranean caverns soaked up the rest. A Person? [2] Several years later in his journal for 1770, Wesley expressed great admiration for Burnet 's Sacred Theory , commenting that its account of the flood was highly probable. [3] In contrast, John Gill , the Baptist divine who pastored one church in Horsleydown for fifty-two years, displayed considerably more awareness of contemporary discussions. Gill believed that the flood legends of the Arabs, Chinese, Mexicans, Peruvians, and Brahmins confirmed the universality of the The Dilema, flood. He cited calculations by Buteo and Wilkins as establishing the point that the essays, ark was spacious enough to have held the requisite animals and food. The Dilema? He maintained that plenty of source water was hiding in it resume, subterranean passages beneath such places as the Caspian and The Dilema, Black Seas as well as in resume, the air. He specifically referred to The Dilema one writer's assertion that thick air is easily turned into water and that the atmosphere might well extend as far as the moon.

Gill calculated that if rain fell toward the earth at as alternative fuel a rate of 250 miles per day, then in the allotted time of 40 days, all the The Dilema, watery particles, which were 10,000 miles high, might descend upon the earth; and this alone might be more than sufficient to cover the highest mountains. Le Parfum Resume? Gill also reckoned that the highest mountains weren't nearly so high as often claimed and that it wouldn't be as difficult to cover them as some people had charged. [4] Gill responded to The Dilema concerns about essays smoking, animal migration by The Dilema, appealing to writing the ability of wild creatures to swim across narrow seas and to the notion that humans might have brought them across larger bodies of The Dilema water in cessation, boats. And if these explanations would not suffice, he offered a backup argument: What is it the power and The Dilema, providence of God cannot do, who could not be at a loss for ways and means to replenish a world in all the parts of it he had made desolate, when it was his pleasure? [5] The Anglican commentator Thomas Scott affirmed that unnamed learned men had shown that the thesis, ark was more than adequate to contain all the animals and their provisions. He further asserted that the The Dilema, ark was even large enough to have accommodated as many sinners as might have repented at the last moment. Scott dismissed as presumptuous attempts to explain the it resume, flood in terms of The Dilema second causes. Le Parfum Resume? Yet despite his reluctance to discuss the mechanisms of the flood, he did suggest that at the conclusion of the debacle, the waters were in part evaporated and in The Dilema, part ran off into the lower countries and the bed of the ocean, or sunk into caverns in portraying a person, the bowels of the earth. He insisted that despite the contentions of some learned men, the deluge was strictly universal and that even in The Dilema, his day, traces of the deluge are found in all parts of the earth.

Unfortunately he left no clue as to cessation what he understood those traces to be. [6] Generally speaking, eighteenth-century biblical commentators, like Luther and Calvin before them, made relatively little effort to The Dilema engage either extrabiblical data or scientific discussions. They evidenced little sense of the difficult problems posed by the discovery of the New World and were willing to make confident assertions about the universality of the deluge on essentially textual grounds. They uncritically accepted diluvialism because it reinforced traditional conceptions of the deluge. As the eighteenth century proceeded, however, the community of natural philosophers found it more difficult to sustain a belief in resume, diluvialism. Despite Catcott 's late efforts, mounting evidence was undermining attempts to account for The Dilema all the earth's fossiliferous strata by disposable thesis, means of a flood theory. Eventually diluvialism collapsed for both theological and scientific reasons. The Dilema? The stress on the theological side accumulated as individual texts of Scripture were used to support a variety of competing theories and speculations about earth history. [7] The fountains of the great deep (Gen 7:11), for example, had been variously understood to fuel essays refer to The Dilema the abyss, comets, the ocean, and water from caves. These diverse interpretations and conflicting applications of the relevant texts to smoking cessation scientific problems of The Dilema earth history led to a growing suspicion that the disposable rocket thesis, texts were being used improperly, that they were being pressed into answering categories of questions they were not meant to The Dilema answer. Cessation? Theologically oriented naturalists began to wonder openly if the inspiration of the Bible extended to the sphere of science.

Did God give Scripture as a source of scientific information, they asked, or was it a book of redemption, theology, and morals? As the sense grew that Scripture provided no single, incontestable, infallible diluvial scenario, scholars began to The Dilema back away from grandiose biblically based flood cosmogonies. The exegetical tensions were more than matched by scientific tensions. Le Parfum? Many thinkers sensed that diluvialism grew too much out of speculation and too little out of empirical evidence. The Dilema? Gradually the empirical discoveries of the eighteenth century provided more tension than diluvialism could bear. Portraying A Person Essay? Important developments in The Dilema, the study of rock strata, spectacular fossil finds, and new knowledge about animal species and their relationships to hydrogen as alternative fuel essays their environment all fatally undermined diluvialism. The Rise of Stratigraphy and Geomorphology. At first, the The Dilema, recognition that the disposable, earth's outer skin is typically stratified was readily integrated into theories of global diluvialism. John Woodward had stressed that stratification was widespread, and he, Hutchinson , Catcott , and others explained the strata as deposits of the The Dilema, receding deluge.

As the hydrogen, eighteenth century progressed, however, stratigraphy increasingly became a stumbling block for diluvialism. Despite Steno 's important work on stratification, it was not until Woodward had emphasized the significance of layering that a number of people began to describe stratified outcrops and quarries in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London . For example, in 1710, Fettiplace Bellers described strata in a coal pit at Dudley, Staffordshire, and included a table of specific gravities of the strata. John Strachey (1671-1743) contributed papers in The Dilema, 1719 and 1725 on strata in coal mines at Mendip in Somersetshire, and John Michell (1724-1793) discussed stratification in essays smoking, connection with earthquakes. [8] Occasionally, brief letters describing unconsolidated strata in surficial deposits were also published. [9] By mid-century, naturalists had begun to describe and map successions of rock strata on a large scale and to classify mountains on the basis of their groups of strata. The Dilema? Much of that work was done in continental Europe, where scholars were considerably less constrained by the demands of disposable rocket thesis natural theology or the desire to produce biblical-scientific cosmogonies than were scholars in Great Britain. In Italy, Antonio Vallisnieri (1661-1730), a physician, professor at the university in Padua, and fellow of the Royal Society of London since 1705, concluded from his examination of The Dilema Alpine strata that the marine-looking strata were too widespread to be the product of Woodward's deluge. As Alternative Essays? He suggested that water would need to cover the globe for a much longer time than the The Dilema, year of the deluge in resume, order to lay down all the observed strata. [10] In 1740, Anton-Lazarro Moro (1687-1764), a Roman Catholic priest and naturalist, described mountains in terms of the presence or absence of The Dilema stratification. He classified mountains that lacked stratified rock as primary and mountains that consisted of stratified rocks clearly superimposed on primary rocks as secondary. He generally attributed the primary mountains to the action of the earth's internal fire. Essays? Despite his interest in cosmogony and The Dilema, positive references to Genesis and divine creation, Moro had little use for le parfum resume the diluvialism of Burnet or Woodward. According to Moro, the deluge ought to be believed according to the Scripture, as a miracle, and not to be proved by The Dilema, natural rules. [11]

A mining inspector and professor of mining in Venice, Giovanni Arduino (1714-1795) further developed Moro's classification in fuel, northern Italy by recognizing four different divisions. Arduino classified mountains consisting of granite, metallic veins, and mica slates as primary or primitive. These were overlain by secondary mountains consisting of limestones that locally contained fossil marine shells. Above those strata were tertiary materials such as gravel, sand, clay, and marl containing abundant marine remains. These deposits accumulated in The Dilema, valleys or on the slopes of the secondary hills. The tertiary material, concluded Arduino, had been in part derived by decay of the secondary rocks. Some volcanic layers were also interlayered with tertiary strata.

The fourth category contained surface materials eroded from the writing, mountains by the action of running water. [12] German-born scientist-explorer Pierre Simon Pallas (1741-1811) occupied the The Dilema, chair of natural history in the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg. Le Parfum Resume? At the request of Empress Catherine II he led an expedition to Siberia and described primitive, secondary, and tertiary mountains based on the efforts of previous investigators and his own explorations of the Ural and Altai mountains. Pallas believed that the classification of The Dilema mountains was applicable to the Alps, the Apennines, the rocket, Caucasus, and several other ranges. The Dilema? [13] Johann Gottlob Lehmann (1719-1767), a physician, copper producer, and professor of chemistry in St. Petersburg, arrived at a similar classification for the mountain ranges of northern Europe. Lehmann believed that very high primitive mountains were probably coeval with the original making of the world.

Surrounding these mountains were secondary mountains that consisted of Flotzgebirge -- flat layers of rock formed from water-borne sediments and exhibiting abundant quantities of fossils. Superimposed on these were local accidents. Lehmann sketched cross sections of these layered secondary mountains and subdivided the layered strata. A Swedish chemist at Uppsala, Torbern Bergman (1735-1784), followed Lehmann's classification, and Georg Fuchsel (1722-1773), a royal physician and hydrogen fuel essays, devotee of mining, published detailed maps and cross sections of Lehmann's strata. [14] The classification of Lehmann and The Dilema, Bergman was further developed and elevated to quasi-canonical status by Abraham G. Werner (1749-1817), an outstanding teacher at the Mining Academy of Freiberg, Saxony. Writing? [15] Like his predecessors, Werner used the terms primary or primitive for The Dilema the oldest mountains ( Urgebirge ). He also employed Lehmann's term Flotzgebirge . Essays? However, he introduced a new category of transition strata ( Ubergangsgebirge ) that included steeply inclined, unfossiliferous stratified slates and The Dilema, graywackes that lay above the primitive rocks but below the Flotz rocks. The Flotz rocks included limestone, gypsum, salt, coal, sandstone, and basalt. He designated younger unconsolidated sedimentary materials as das aufgeschwemmte Gebirge or the building, alluvial series. He believed volcanic rocks to be very recent in The Dilema, the geological time scale. [16]

A crude geological timescale gradually emerged from study of the stratigraphic relationships in mountains during the eighteenth century. Naturalists agreed that primitive rocks were the oldest because they lay beneath all others, that transition rocks (if they used that term) were a little younger, that secondary or Flotz rocks were younger yet because they lay atop primitive rocks, and that tertiary or alluvial rocks were younger still because they lay atop secondary formations. As Alternative Fuel Essays? Individual strata could be distinguished within the various groupings, and their relative ages were determined by their position in a succession of strata. The irregular boundaries that separated primitive from secondary and secondary from tertiary rocks implied that deposition had not been continuous. The discontinuities between groupings of strata implied periodic interruption by uplifts and deposition by causes other than the The Dilema, flood. Evidences for such revolutions were made explicit by James Hutton 's (1726-1797) descriptions of angular unconformities in Scotland. [17] At Siccar Point on the Scottish coast east of essay Edinburgh, at Jedburgh, and on the Isle of The Dilema Skye, Hutton pointed out the phenomenon of the angular unconformity, a situation in which relatively horizontal rocks overlie the evidently eroded edges of steeply tilted layers. Disposable Rocket Thesis? Hutton argued that such phenomena were evidence for important revolutions in earth history. The older strata had been consolidated, tilted on edge, uplifted toward the surface, eroded to form a land surface, then submerged beneath the sea and buried under newly deposited marine sediments. He interpreted the unconformities as ancient buried erosion surfaces. Naturalists and The Dilema, mining engineers involved in the classification schemes measured the thicknesses of strata, determined their lateral extent, and noted the regularity with which the various strata succeeded one another.

Lehmann , Fuchsel , and Pallas discovered that rock strata occurred in orderly sequences, that European sequences were commonly thousands of feet thick, and that in many instances individual formations could be traced for as alternative fuel essays tens or hundreds of miles. The thickness, extent, and orderliness of stratigraphic successions, unrecognized in the heyday of The Dilema diluvial cosmogonies, were increasingly difficult to account for in terms of a catastrophe presumed to have been marked by chaos, confusion, and turbulence. The stratigraphic evidence being uncovered rendered traditional diluvialism increasingly untenable. Attempts were also made to explain the disposable thesis, surface features of the The Dilema, landscape. Thesis? It had been widely accepted for some time that rivers eroded mountainsides, and yet there were many mountain valleys throughout northern Europe that contain no rivers or at The Dilema most small streams that scarcely seemed capable of having produced any major excavation. It was assumed that these valleys must have resulted from a large-scale catastrophic process no longer operative. Many eighteenth-century naturalists turned toward a deluge as a strong possibility. Surface deposits of gravel and sand found far from any existing river system were also considered by many to be evidence of a large inundation at some point in resume, the past. Geological evidence was thus used to push the site of the The Dilema, flood's action from the strata to the earth's surface. The Advent of Neptunism.

Scholars are often reluctant to abandon a cherished theory no matter how flawed it might be until a more satisfactory theoretical framework becomes available. The demise of disposable rocket diluvial cosmogony during the The Dilema, eighteenth century was facilitated not only by the collection of hydrogen as alternative new stratigraphic data but also by the emergence of neptunism as an The Dilema, alternative way of viewing the earth's history. As Alternative Essays? Neptunism first flourished in continental Europe where Enlightenment rationalism created an environment for the growth of earth theories less tied to Genesis than was the case in Britain. Only later did neptunism catch on The Dilema, in Great Britain and America. The fundamental thesis of neptunism was that the bulk of the earth's geological features could be accounted for in terms of the gradual diminishing of an ocean that covered the infant globe at essay building creation. The theory had roots in the speculations of Descartes and the classical Greeks, but it did not begin to enjoy widespread acceptance until the The Dilema, eighteenth century, following the publication of a volume entitled Telliamed by a well-traveled French diplomat named Benoit de Maillet (1656-1738). Disposable? Geological observations he made during his frequent travels in the Middle East and throughout the Mediterranean led de Maillet to postulate that rock formations had been laid down in a gradually lowering ocean over The Dilema, the course of it resume writing millions of years. [18]

French savant and director of the botanical garden in Paris Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788), linked the theory of the recession of the The Dilema, ocean together in disposable thesis, one grand cosmogony with his comprehensive explanation of biological and The Dilema, geological phenomena in as alternative essays, terms of the gradual cooling of the globe from an The Dilema, originally incandescent state over on national building, a period of tens of thousands of years. [19] The suspicions that the British naturalists Lhwyd , Ray , and Hooke entertained in their letters that the earth was more than six thousand years old were made shockingly explicit by de Maillet and The Dilema, Buffon . It Resume? And the Swedish botanist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) viewed both the The Dilema, occurrence of fossils far inland from the le parfum, sea and the raised marine terraces along the Scandinavian coasts as evidence of a past diminution of the The Dilema, ocean. [20] The neptunist theory received a definitive treatment by Werner . He interpreted mineralized veins and primitive rocks such as granite and le parfum, schist as precipitates of chemicals originally dissolved in The Dilema, a universal ocean. Most neptunists agreed that primitive rocks were chemical precipitates, but Werner also believed that many of the smoking, stratified rocks, particularly those of a crystalline nature such as basalt, were also chemical in The Dilema, origin. Le Parfum Resume? He further maintained that the transition and Flotz rocks were a combination of chemical precipitates and mechanically produced sediments. He viewed fossiliferous rocks as examples of The Dilema mechanical sediments produced by the erosion of older primitive mountains. [21] Other neptunists regarded most of the le parfum resume, layered Flotz rocks as mechanically derived sediments deposited on the surface of primitive mountains and subsequently tilted.

Werner's numerous disciples at Freiberg spread neptunist doctrine throughout Europe and America. Neptunism boasted such prominent defenders as Jean Andre Deluc (1727-1817), Jean Francois d'Aubuisson (1769-1819), Leopold von Buch (1774-1852), Robert Jameson (1774-1854), and famed geographer Alexander von Humboldt (1765-1859). Although neptunism largely replaced diluvialism as an explanation for the formation of The Dilema layered rocks, interest in the Noachian flood was hardly dead. Diluvialism may have been dying out, but many scholars continued to believe that there was scientific evidence for the flood. Diluvialists such as Woodward , Whiston , Hutchinson , and Catcott had maintained that the biblical flood deposited the rocks now categorized as secondary and tertiary, or transition, Flotz, and alluvial. Neptunists variously attributed the formation of at least secondary and some tertiary deposits (or at least transition and essay on national building, Flotz deposits) to the action of a shrinking ocean that predated the The Dilema, biblical flood, but some of them still attributed tertiary or alluvial materials composed of gravel, sand, clay, and peat to the flood. Smoking Cessation? Such deposits had frequently yielded the The Dilema, puzzling skeletal remains of giant animals no longer known to exist. It Resume Writing? Some neptunists believed that these remains could readily be attributed to the flood even if the invertebrate marine shell beds of the secondary rocks could not. Discoveries of Vertebrate Remains.

In 1728, Hans Sloane (1660-1753), the president of the Royal Society of London, summarized several of The Dilema these peculiar animal finds. [22] Issues of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London frequently contained notices of strange bones, teeth, or horns that had accidentally been encountered during the digging of wells or excavation for building foundations. It Resume Writing? [23] Particularly intriguing were a growing number of The Dilema discoveries of essay on national building teeth, tusks, and bones belonging to a strikingly elephant-like creature. The Dilema? [24] Some of the discoveries were in Europe, but reports of remains of an elephant-like creature kept trickling in from the frozen expanses of Siberia. Picture below right: Wooly Mammoth ( mammuthus primigenius , Late Pleistocene) -- This well known mammoth was a cold climate dweller equipped with a thick layer of fat for insulation, and an exterior of long black hair. It was smaller than most mammoths (9 ft or 2.7 m high), and had a hump of fat behind its domed head. It fed on low tundra vegetation in which it scraped away snow and as alternative fuel, ice with its ivory tusks. Several well preserved remains have been found in Siberia and The Dilema, Alaska and hydrogen as alternative essays, cave paintings in The Dilema, Spain and it resume, France show depictions of the Wooly Mammoth as seen by early humans. The mammuthus primigenius went extinct only about 10,000 years ago. Drawing by artist Josef Moravec of The Dilema Prehistoric World Images . In a 1692 Siberian expedition, Ysbrand Ides , Peter the Great 's envoy to China, not only writing encountered tusks and bones but saw remnants of a partially preserved carcass embedded in frozen ground. Ides wrote that Mammut's Tongues and The Dilema, Legs are found and noted that such remains could be encountered on the shores of the Jenize (Yenisei), Lena, and as alternative fuel, other rivers. One of his companions found a head when a frozen piece of riverbank collapsed.

Most of the flesh was rotten. Ides recounted an The Dilema, old native belief that the mammoths continually, or at essay on national least by reason of the very hard Frosts, mostly live under Ground, where they go backwards and forwards, and they died when they came in contact with air. The Dilema? In contrast, said Ides, the Russians believed that there were elephants in hydrogen as alternative fuel essays, the area when the climate was warmer before the deluge. After the flood, the The Dilema, air became cold enough to freeze them, and their bones have lain frozen in the Earth ever since, and so are preserved from Putrefaction till they thaw. Ides suspected that the carcasses could have floated in from several hundred miles distant during the great flood. [25] Additional Siberian mammoth finds were reported in the early eighteenth century. In a letter to Philosophical Transactions , John Breyne expressed his view that such remains were left there by it resume, the universal deluge.

When several large bones and a tooth were dug up in the Hudson River valley of North America, Puritan leader Cotton Mather attributed them to an antediluvian giant. The Dilema? In 1739, elephant tusks, molars, and bones were discovered in a marsh near the Ohio River in Kentucky. A 1765 expedition to the site now known as Big Bone Lick turned up huge amounts of skeletal material, and two years later an account of some of the hydrogen as alternative fuel, tusks and grinders was presented to the Royal Society of London. In 1780, in the Wallkill Valley of Orange County, New York, four large teeth were collected from a swamp on the property of the Reverend Robert Annan . Several more finds, including entire elephant-like skeletons (of mastodons), were excavated from the same region in subsequent years. In 1796, Thomas Jefferson acquired remains of The Dilema a huge skeleton with claws that had been recovered from a cave in hydrogen essays, western Virginia. The Dilema? Jefferson called the creature megalonix , an animal now known to be a giant extinct sloth. In the meantime, Siberia continued to yield frozen carcasses of hydrogen rhinoceros and mammoth, some of which were studied by Pallas. The Dilema? One of the more impressive finds was made by Shumakhov in 1799 in the delta of the Lena River when he noticed a strange looking mass within the frozen ground. He revisited the site for several years, during which time more of the animal emerged.

During the fifth year, the fuel essays, carcass thawed completely and slid down to the river bank. The tusks were chopped off and sold. The Dilema? Drawings of the creature came into smoking, possession of M. F. Adams , a zoologist member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who hustled off to the Lena delta in 1806 to see the carcass for himself. The trunk, tail, and The Dilema, one ear were gone, but one eye still kept its color. Soft parts, except for the skin on the head, one foot, and essays smoking cessation, the side on which the animal lay, had been completely destroyed by wild animals and dogs. The animal, a male, had been well fed and fat. The hide preserved on the ground was covered with thick hair. [26] Remnants of the beast were returned to the St. Petersburg museum. In the long run, the discovery of most far-reaching significance took place in 1797 at Hoxne, England, when a series of flint implements were found in a layer of gravelly soil. The Dilema? The discoverer, John Frere (1740-1807), reported that the implements lay in great numbers at the depth of about twelve feet, in a stratified soil and were associated with some extraordinary bones, particularly a jaw-bone of enormous size, of cessation some unknown animal.

The significance of the The Dilema, discovery, however, was not immediately recognized. [27] Neptunism and the Flood. Despite the growing belief that primitive, secondary, and most tertiary rocks must have formed prior to disposable the deluge, perhaps during long ages of creation, neptunists nonetheless had room for the deluge. After all, the fossil remains of most of the monstrous animals discovered during the The Dilema, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries had come from swamps, marshes, and essay building, gravels that formed subsequent to most tertiary formations. Not all neptunists worked out specific deluge theories, but predictably closer links between neptunism and Scripture (and particularly the Noachic flood) were forged in the British Isles. The ideas of Richard Kirwan (1733-1812) are illustrative. Kirwan, a chemist and mineralogist, Inspector of Mines for Ireland, and The Dilema, eventually long-time president of the Royal Irish Academy, discussed the writing, topic of the deluge in The Dilema, a lengthy article. [28] He suggested in disposable thesis, neptunist fashion that the original sea had retreated through rifts in the crust until a few centuries before the deluge, an amount of time necessary for the rocks formed from the universal ocean to become sufficiently hardened to withstand the shocks they would undergo during the ensuing catastrophe. What, asked Kirwan, were the geological proofs of the deluge? Having proved that at The Dilema the time of the creation, no mountains reached higher than 8,500 feet, he argued that shells found at higher elevations than that could only have been left there by a subsequent inundation. He found further evidence for a flood in the fact that the resume, fossil remains of The Dilema organisms that dwell in widely disparate and hydrogen as alternative essays, distant climates were mixed promiscuously with each other in The Dilema, the rocks. Marine remains accompanied European fossil elephant and rhinoceros bones, and all such remains were found even in such hostile areas as Siberia, where animals native to Africa and India could never have survived alive.

Kirwan argued that the remains must have been swept into rocket, the harsher regions over great distances from their native habitats by The Dilema, an enormous inundation. Kirwan rejected previous explanations of a universal deluge. He asserted instead that the deluge originated in the ocean south of the equator and rushed to the northern hemisphere. It was forceful enough, he said, to carry the carcasses of on national building animals such as elephants from the southern countries and marine species from The Dilema, southern seas to high latitudes beyond 45 deg N, where their remains can now be found in surficial deposits. The force of the flood must have traveled northward, he reasoned, because no remains of animals native to it resume the north are found in the southern lands. Moreover, he contended that traces of a violent shock or impression from the south were perceptible in the shapes of the mountains. The Dilema? Indeed, he found evidence in the very shapes of the continents, which tend to be sharpened toward the south as at the Cape of Good Hope and in Patagonia: the land was swashed by the southern ocean so forcibly, he said, that nothing but the mountains could resist.

Finally, an inundation from the southeast would also have been necessary to fuel essays drive the ark northwesterly toward Armenia. Kirwan envisioned the great southern ocean surging northward with irresistible impetuosity against a continent that at one time likely united Asia and America. This material was torn up and swept away as far as latitude 40 deg N, he said, leaving only The Dilema scattered islands. Thesis? The progress of the The Dilema, surge was checked by le parfum resume, the mountains of China, Tartary, and the west American coast. Sweeping into China, the torrents picked up the soil covering what is now the The Dilema, Gobi Desert and pressed on toward the north polar regions. Here the essay, torrents were ultimately spent by the mountains of eastern Siberia. But on the way these huge torrents dashed over the mountains bearing over them the vegetable and The Dilema, animal spoils of the more southern, ravaged or torn up continents to the plains of western Siberia, where the remains were deposited. The bed of the Atlantic Ocean was also scoured by the water.

As evidence, Kirwan called attention to portraying the similarities in shapes of coastlines on the opposite sides of the Atlantic and asserted that the depression of such a vast tract of land cannot appear improbable when we consider the The Dilema, shock it must have received, and disposable rocket thesis, the enormous load with which it was charged. [29] The concussion of water also rent the basaltic masses along the Scottish and The Dilema, Irish coasts into building, pillars, he said. Kirwan maintained that only animals that were most necessary for the use of man were present on the ark. Since the ravenous animals would have posed a threat to the immediate survivors of the deluge, Kirwan proposed that carnivores were probably created after the flood and after the graminivorous animals had greatly multiplied. The Dilema? He likewise attributed the animals of America and of the torrid and frigid zones to a subsequent creation . Kirwan further suggested that prediluvial vegetables gave off such vast quantities of disposable rocket thesis oxygen that the atmosphere before the flood was much purer than now, perhaps explaining the greater longevity of the antediluvians. After the flood, however, the The Dilema, surface of the earth was covered with putrefying animals and it resume, fish which absorbed oxygen and supplied only mephitic and fixed air, thus bringing the atmosphere to its present state.

He conjectured that domestic disturbances within Noah's family induced him to move, along with those closest to him, to the regions he inhabited before the The Dilema, flood, in portraying a person, the vicinity of China, and hence the early origin of the Chinese monarchy. [30] The widespread opinion that the world's stratified, fossiliferous rocks could be accounted for in terms of the action of a biblical global deluge had faded. Nonetheless, nearly a century later, orthodox Christian naturalists were still largely committed to a universal flood, a flood that accounted only for surficial phenomena, including surface gravels, vast deposits of marine shells, and graveyards of vertebrates. The hardened stratified deposits were now generally regarded as having formed much earlier than the flood, in all likelihood at The Dilema the time of creation. And some orthodox Christians were beginning to wonder if a six-day creation was adequate to account for those rocks.

Developments in Biogeography. Further adjustments were also being forced by growing knowledge about animal and portraying a person, plant distribution. The eighteenth-century expeditions such as Captain Cook's voyages to The Dilema the Pacific were continuously adding to the list of organisms, pushing it well beyond the 500 birds, 150 quadrupeds, and about 10,000 invertebrates that had been catalogued by John Ray in the seventeenth century. The great systematician of the eighteenth century, Linnaeus , listed more than 14,000 animal species, including almost 300 mammals. Linnaeus doubted that Noah's ark could have carried all the animal species. Hydrogen As Alternative Fuel Essays? Rather than attributing dispersal of all the animals to the ark, he envisioned creation taking place on a primitive mountain rising above a universal ocean. Each pair of The Dilema animals was created in a particular climatic belt in association with the other species designed for essays such conditions. Reindeer and arctic lichens existed at The Dilema the summit; tropical palms and monkeys lived at the base.

Every plant had its proper soil and every animal its proper climate, and fuel essays, the mountain was an entire world in miniature. The Dilema? [31] In standard neptunist fashion, Linnaeus had the animals spread out to their ultimate environments and latitudes as the universal ocean shrank and exposed more land. Linnaeus generally assumed that species were fixed, unchangeable units binding individuals together by descent through successive generations. He argued that the number of individuals in a species is constantly increasing, so if we work backward, we can trace each species to one set of primeval parents created by God. Linnaeus further stressed the a person essay, notion that the The Dilema, function and structure of an organism is indissolubly linked to the environment for which it was adapted. Every species inhabited its own definite place. Linnaeus objected to the notion of a universal deluge on the grounds that it would have upset the God-ordained stability of creation. How could all the animals have migrated from an essays smoking cessation, ark when they were now so well adapted to The Dilema their specific environments? For example, how could a reindeer, so well adapted to disposable the bitter cold of the far north, survive a trek from the ark to the tundra of The Dilema Scandinavia? Buffon accounted for animal distribution in terms of his theory of the cooling of the le parfum, globe. All life, he claimed, began near the The Dilema, north pole when that locality was much warmer and then migrated southward as the le parfum resume, planet cooled.

The southward movement of The Dilema organisms into the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa led to increased isolation as animals were cut off from essay, one another by wide oceans. [32] In the first detailed review of The Dilema mammal distribution, a little-known zoologist, Eberhardt A. W. Zimmermann , a late eighteenth-century professor of mathematics and physics in Brunswick, dispensed altogether with the essay on national, concept of The Dilema a common dispersal center. He dismissed Linnaeus's idea of it resume writing original created pairs existing in the same place on The Dilema, the ground that the first pair of lions would quickly have devoured the first pair of le parfum resume sheep, goats, and other species, and would ultimately have starved because they had eaten the first pair of The Dilema everything else. Zimmermann hypothesized that each species, including the approximately 450 mammals recognized in his time, was created in the region it now inhabits. The climate that prevails now in each region would also have prevailed at the time of species creation. Thus whole environments were created at once. Le Parfum? [33] Summary of Eighteenth-Century on The Dilema, the Flood. Despite the considerable body of scholarship pertaining to the capacity of the ark, the worldwide distribution of animals, and diluvial cosmogonies, some of the more important biblical commentators of the eighteenth century failed to interact significantly with that scholarship. Matthew Henry, Thomas Scott, and John Wesley gave little attention to essay extrabiblical information and were generally content to support traditional views with naive, sweeping, unsubstantiated assertions or by invoking miracle.

John Gill often knowledgeably interacted with extrabiblical knowledge more than others, but, when faced with the difficulties posed by animal migration to and from the ark, even he ultimately fell back on miracle. Discoveries made after these commentators wrote rendered the The Dilema, case for a global deluge still weaker. For example, eighteenth-century scholars increasingly came to appreciate the very close dependency of species on their habitats. Ultimately this awareness exposed a fatal flaw in theories depending on any sort of natural migration of animals over long distances. It is possible for only a very few species to migrate over long distances; the absence of appropriate food, water, and climate renders such journeys impossible for most animals. Naturalists also accumulated evidence that the flood could not have deposited the entire stratified rock record. They increasingly concluded that if the flood left behind geological evidence, it must have been confined to various surface features and deposits. Coupled with this shift in understanding of the deluge's effects was a growing sense that the earth must have experienced a history longer than the traditionally supposed six thousand years. As significant quantities of physical evidence accumulated, many of those who grappled with it felt a need to reconsider traditional interpretations of the biblical texts relevant to earth history.

Nineteenth-Century Developments, the Rise of Diluvial Catastrophism. By the disposable rocket, beginning of the nineteenth century, the interpretation of the geological strata had changed radically. Virtually no established geologist thought that the thick sequences of stratified sedimentary rocks so evident in quarries, cliffs, and mountains had anything to do with the flood. Neptunists attributed stratification to deposition of sediments from a shrinking primeval ocean. Others suspected that rock strata represented deposits laid down in successive interchanges of land and sea, possibly over long periods of The Dilema time before the advent of human beings. Most students of the earth gave tacit assent to a rudimentary time scale that classified rocks as primitive, transition, secondary, or tertiary. Great thicknesses of portraying essay strata, many evidently deposited on the sea bottom, strongly implied that the earth's pre-human history extended far beyond a few thousand years. James Hutton demonstrated that primitive rocks that had previously been dated back to The Dilema the time of creation actually had a discernible prior history: many of them were altered sedimentary rocks that showed signs of having been deposited on a seabed. Geological unconformities gave evidence of extensive histories involving the consolidation of strata, uplift and tilting, and smoking, severe erosion of the tilted rocks before deposition of the next sequence of strata.

Discoveries of several unconformities within thick stacks of sedimentary rocks and The Dilema, various other observational and experimental findings accumulated to suggest that the it resume writing, earth was really quite ancient . The vast majority of The Dilema naturalists readily agreed with John Playfair 's 1802 assessment that though there be in it no data, from which the commencement of the on national, present order can be ascertained, there are many by which the existence of that order may be traced back to an antiquity extremely remote. The Dilema? [34] Students of geology were now mapping secondary and tertiary strata in detail. In southern England, for resume example, the engineer of the British canal system, William Smith (1769-1839), worked out the The Dilema, stratigraphy of portraying essay much of the secondary sequence during the last decade of the eighteenth century. In the first decade of the following century, Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) and his colleague Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847) at the French Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris did the same with tertiary strata in The Dilema, the Paris basin. They soon recognized that individual formations were characterized by their own distinctive fossil fauna.

And Cuvier recognized that the it resume, Paris basin sequence contained alternating marine and The Dilema, terrestrial deposits, the former containing fossilized invertebrate shells and the latter containing fossilized vertebrate quadruped remains. Both the regular distribution of fossils and essays cessation, the alternations between marine and terrestrial remains made it difficult to reason that the The Dilema, deluge could have produced the earth's consolidated fossiliferous sedimentary rocks. Students of the earth had also become increasingly reluctant to indulge in grandiose cosmogonical theories. [35] Even so, the presumption of a vast deluge was still common among late eighteenth-century naturalists. Leading geologists of the early nineteenth century on the Continent, in essay on national, Britain, and in America still had no difficulty in attributing many surficial geological features to catastrophic diluvial action. The Dilema? Recognizing the tentative, incomplete state of knowledge about the earth, the multitude of important unanswered questions about the earth's past, and the need for a reasonable theory of the earth at the close of the eighteenth century, Alpine geologist Horace Benedict de Saussure (1740-1799), professor of philosophy at resume the Academy of Geneva, published an agenda for future research to provide a foundation for a theory of the earth. Among the matters he felt should be addressed were historical monuments, including the deluges or great inundations; their epochs and extent. In a section on rolled pebbles, de Saussure suggested that a study of high elevation pebbles and rolled blocks foreign to the soil which bears them and of the large valleys nearby could yield some indications of the The Dilema, direction, size and force of the currents produced by the grand revolutions of the earth. He also thought it important to determine whether blocks of rock found on mountaintops were transported gradually by as alternative fuel essays, waves that raised them from the bottoms of the valleys or abruptly by The Dilema, huge tides. [36] De Saussure spoke for the geological community when he identified the role and effects of past floods as a significant geological issue. During the early nineteenth century there was no shortage of writing top-rank geologists willing to tackle that problem.

Georges Cuvier , scientist-administrator extraordinaire who firmly established the disciplines of both vertebrate paleontology and The Dilema, comparative anatomy, was a professor of essay zoology at The Dilema the College de France who also held an influential post in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. [37] He was also a nominal Protestant who, according to his biographer Dorinda Outram, viewed Protestantism as a series of portraying essay opportunities rather than as a body of The Dilema belief. His handling of the issue of the flood, says Outram, was not motivated by any deep spiritual attachment to Scripture. In his Essay on the Theory of the Earth , an introduction to his monumental multi-volume work on essay, fossil vertebrates, Cuvier proposed that the secondary and tertiary strata had been formed during successive sudden catastrophes caused over long ages by The Dilema, repeated irruptions and retreats of the cessation, sea. [38] The idea of multiple catastrophes was suggested by fragmented and overturned strata, the The Dilema, presence of heaps of debris and rounded pebbles found among the solid strata, and the carcasses of large quadrupeds that had been partially preserved in surface deposits of the northern regions. Cuvier maintained that natural catastrophes had caused the permanent extinction of several large mammals such as the mammoth. Cuvier asserted on essay, zoological grounds that the most recent of these catastrophes could not have been very ancient, consistent with the existence of many traditions, including that of Moses, that the globe had suffered a recent catastrophe. Cuvier fully agreed that. if there is The Dilema, any circumstance thoroughly established in geology, it is, that the le parfum, crust of our globe has been subjected to a great and sudden revolution, the epoch of which cannot be dated much farther back than five or six thousand years ago; that this revolution had buried all the countries which were before inhabited by men and by the other animals that are now best known; that the same revolution had laid dry the bed of the last ocean, which now forms all the countries at present inhabited; that the small number of individuals of men and other animals that escaped from the effects of that great revolution, have since propagated and spread over the lands then newly laid dry; and consequently, that the human race has only resumed a progressive state of improvement since that epoch, by forming established societies, raising monuments, collecting natural facts, and constructing systems of science and of learning. [39] Cuvier stopped just short of an explicit identification of The Dilema this recent catastrophe with the Mosaic flood. George Bellas Greenough (1778-1855), a student of Werner, member of Parliament, and one of the resume, founders and first president of the The Dilema, Geological Society of London in 1807, also stopped short of such an identification.

In A Critical Examination of the essay, First Principles of Geology , issued in 1819 when he was president of the Geological Society, Greenough addressed the problem of the great displaced blocks that were scattered across the The Dilema, face of Europe. He maintained that if seas, rivers, or collapsing lakes could not transport such exotic blocks, then the it resume, only remaining cause, to The Dilema which these effects can be ascribed, is a Debacle or Deluge. [40] To account for the bones and tusks of elephants found in Siberia, Pallas proposed that the deluge had swept over essay, the Alps and the mountains of Tartary during a period of tremendous eruptions that he believed produced the Moluccas, the Philippines, and The Dilema, other volcanic islands in the Indian Archipelago. Disposable Rocket Thesis? Greenough had difficulties with Pallas's hypothesis, however. He doubted that the The Dilema, bones could have traveled from the Indian Ocean to Siberia without fracture or abrasion, for essays smoking cessation instance.

He also maintained that relatively fresh carcasses found in the Arctic could not have been transported there from southern regions, because any such remains would have putrefied long before arriving. Moreover, the bones of the elephants were mixed with the bones of such decidedly northern species as the ox, buffalo, elk, and horse. Greenough also wondered why volcanic eruptions would have caused deluges to take a northern rather than southern course, and he questioned whether the volume of water involved would have been adequate to produce the presumed disruption. The rising of these islands could displace only a quantity of water equivalent to their bulk, wrote Greenough, and The Dilema, such a quantity would not have been able to surmount the essays, mountains of Asia. Greenough also rejected a proposal of Sir James Hall (1761-1832), early geological experimentalist and good friend of James Hutton , to account for the granite blocks dispersed over the Jura mountains by a debacle. [41] Despite problems with the various hypotheses, Greenough believed that the widespread distribution of alluvial sand and gravel proved that the same inundation had affected all countries, as did the universal occurrence and distinctive symmetry of mountains and valleys. Moreover, he maintained that the direction in The Dilema, which the waters of the deluge flowed could be ascertained by an examination of the orientations of bowlder-stones, mountains, valleys, promontories, and escarpments. [42] The timing of the geological deluge was a crucial issue, however, for identifying the deluge that Greenough believed had left its mark on the earth's surface features with the biblical deluge. He found no evidence that might help to determine whether the geological deluge occurred before or after the creation of man. There existed only the portraying a person, negative evidence that no human skeletal remains nor implements of art had been discovered either in the regular strata or in the diluvian surficial deposits. [43] A more difficult matter was the cause of the deluge.

Greenough suggested that a transitory cause foreign to the solar system, capable of inundating continents, and giving to the waters of the deep unexampled impetuosity, but without altering the The Dilema, interior constitution of the earth, or deranging the sister planets was needed. Greenough recalled Halley by looking favorably on it resume writing, the possibility of a cometary or meteoritic shock to the earth. [44] Diluvial catastrophism was firmly established when William Buckland (1784-1856) was inaugurated as professor of geology at The Dilema Oxford in 1819. Buckland was a minister in the Church of England with moderate broad church sympathies. As Alternative Fuel Essays? As indicated by his advocacy of the gap theory for Genesis 1 (i.e., the belief that a long period of time occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, between the initial creation and The Dilema, the state of formlessness of the earth), he did not insist on fuel, strict biblical literalism. Buckland was very sensitive to two matters: (1) the flood played a much smaller role in reconstructions of geological history than it had a century earlier despite the considerable attention still paid to it, and (2) geology was increasingly charting its own course and paying less heed to theological assertions about the alleged demands of scriptural texts. In his landmark Oxford inaugural lecture, Buckland sought to allay the suspicions of the The Dilema, theologically conservative university authorities that geology might be hostile to revealed religion by writing, painstakingly demonstrating the compatibility of geology and The Dilema, religion, particularly with regard to the flood.

Buckland's strategy was to show that geology blended with Oxford's tradition of cessation classical learning. As Nicolaas Rupke observed, in Buckland's inaugural the diluvial theory became the linchpin by which modern geology attached itself to the carriage of the Anglican tradition of learning and the clerical purpose of an Oxford education. [45] Buckland conceded some slight difficulties in efforts to harmonize geology and The Dilema, Christian faith, but he maintained that there was harmony on writing, the most essential points, including the deluge. He virtually equated the The Dilema, hypothesized geological inundation with the deluge of Moses and optimistically pronounced that. the grand fact of an universal deluge at no very remote period is le parfum, proved on grounds so decisive and incontrovertible, that, had we never heard of such an event from Scripture, or any other, authority, Geology of itself must have called in the assistance of some such catastrophe, to explain the phenomena of diluvian action which are universally presented to us, and The Dilema, which are unintelligible without recourse to a deluge exerting its ravages at on national a period not more ancient than that announced in the Book of Genesis. The Dilema? [46] Just what were those decisive and incontrovertible grounds? Buckland argued that the shape and position of hills and valleys as well as the confluence of streams into a main trunk favored the flood. He argued that gravel deposits around the world, locally forming isolated horizontal strata, could not be attributed solely to river action. Moreover, the portraying essay, unfossilized organic remains of animals identical to species now in existence found deposited in the gravels pointed to a deluge. The two great points of the relatively late appearance of the The Dilema, human race and the universality of a recent deluge, said Buckland, were satisfactorily confirmed by every thing that has yet been brought to light by Geological investigations. Young Professor Buckland, however, had no doubt whatever that the thick successions of stratified, fossiliferous rocks underlying surface gravels were not produced in the deluge but were rather deposited in a slow and gradual manner during successive periods of both tranquillity and great disturbance.

In some cases, said Buckland, these strata had been produced from the destruction of more ancient consolidated rocks and then violently uplifted prior to the deposition of the more modern strata. Although the deluge had sculpted and le parfum resume, destroyed the consolidated strata, the strata themselves could not have been formed in The Dilema, the single year occupied by the Mosaic deluge. Portraying Essay? According to The Dilema Buckland, the antediluvian continents were fundamentally the same as those of the present. Buckland's inaugural address exerted considerable influence on a variety of geologists, including his friend William Conybeare (1787-1857) and William Phillips (1775-1828), coauthors of the highly respected Outlines of the Geology of England and portraying a person, Wales. Conybeare was an early member of the Geological Society of London, one-time fellow at New College, Oxford, and The Dilema, dean of Llandaff. Like Buckland, he was an Anglican minister with centrist affinities, a readiness to look kindly on resume, non-literal scriptural interpretations, and a willingness to cooperate in matters of science with those outside the Church of England such as his coauthor Phillips, a Quaker. Although this 1822 volume was primarily concerned with a detailed description of the secondary formations of southern Great Britain, Conybeare used the occasion to discuss the relationship of geology to religion. The Dilema? He appealed to the same evidences for the deluge that Buckland had, asserting that a recent inundation had swept over the consolidated strata and rocket thesis, indiscriminately covered the whole surface. This inundation was the The Dilema, last great geological change to which the surface of it resume writing our planet appears to The Dilema have been exposed. He called this general covering of water-worn debris Diluvium because of that great and universal catastrophe to which it seems most properly assignable. [47]

In the meantime, in 1821, a bone-filled cave was discovered at Kirkdale in Yorkshire. Smoking Cessation? As one of the The Dilema, cave's first explorers, Buckland found what he took to be further confirmations of a universal deluge. Disposable? [48] The exploration of caves for fossils had recently taken on considerable importance. Buckland had already examined a few, but the remains of Kirkdale provided the occasion for compiling a vast catalogue of physical evidence in support of a recent global flood. Buckland placed on a sound empirical, systematic basis the The Dilema, flood catastrophism expressed by Cuvier and implicit in the thought of many contemporary geologists. Essays Smoking Cessation? Following the publication of The Dilema a synopsis of his findings in Philosophical Transactions, Buckland published his great work Reliquiae Dduvianae in 1823. It Resume Writing? Not quite identifying his universal deluge with that of the Bible, Buckland's dedicatory letter to the Lord Bishop of Durham observed that the conclusions of The Dilema his work afforded the strongest evidence of an universal deluge and expressed the le parfum resume, hope that it will no longer be asserted, as it has been by high authorities, that geology supplies no proofs of an The Dilema, event in the reality of which the truth of the Mosaic records is so materially involved. [49] Also included was a brief chapter containing evidence showing that the inundation had occurred at high elevations. Buckland argued that granite blocks drifted from the heights of Mont Blanc to the Jura, and the bones of diluvial animals found by Humboldt on the elevated plains of South America showed that all the essays smoking, high hills and the mountains under the The Dilema, whole heavens were covered when the last great physical change affected the surface of the whole globe. [50] Buckland came as close as possible without specifically identifying the essay, geological and The Dilema, biblical floods. In Reliquiae Diluvianae Buckland summarized the essay on national building, results of the The Dilema, discoveries at Kirkdale and several other British and European caves. He reviewed facts concerning the form and structure of hills and valleys and concerning accumulations of diluvial loam and gravel containing the remains of animals like those found in the caverns. All of as alternative these facts, said Buckland, cast light on the earth's state prior to the last great convulsion affecting its surface and affording one of the most complete and satisfactory chains of consistent circumstantial evidence I have ever met with in the course of The Dilema my geological investigations. [51]

In Kirkdale cave, Buckland had discovered a great abundance of disposable rocket thesis hyena bones and excrement as well as bones of tigers, bears, wolves, foxes, weasels, elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, horses, oxen, deer, hares, rabbits, water-rats, mice, ravens, pigeons, larks, ducks, and snipes. The bones, some of The Dilema which had been gnawed, were embedded in crystalline material on the cave floor and in red mud overlying the crystalline material. The red mud had been covered by later stalactitic deposits devoid of animal remains. Buckland concluded that the writing, gnawed bones were those of animal carcasses that had been dragged into a lair of hyenas. He contended that the red mud covering the assemblage of extinct vertebrate species had been washed into The Dilema, the cave by the deluge and hence he maintained that the essay on national, stalactitic material covering the mud was postdiluvial. The Dilema? Buckland cited the limited stalactite deposits over the mud and essay on national, the presence of undecayed bones as evidence that the The Dilema, mud layer was introduced no earlier than the time inferred by Cuvier -- that is to say, the time that had elapsed since that great and universal inundation which has overwhelmed the essay on national, earth was about five or six thousand years. [52] In the latter part of the book, Buckland discusses the dispersion of the bones of extinct elephants, deposits of loam and gravel, and diluvial evidences around the world. The book also carries an appendix in which he argues that the flood was responsible for the excavation of river valleys. Buckland doubted that rivers could adequately excavate the huge valleys in which they presently flowed. Unlike Kinvan and Pallas, however, Buckland insisted that the great deluge must have swept out of the north, since boulders on the surface and in gravel deposits of Europe and The Dilema, North America had been transported from identifiable sources to the north. As the years passed, Buckland backed away from the views he so eloquently set forth in portraying a person, Reliquiae Diluvianae . In a footnote in his contribution to the Bridgewater Treatises, Buckland observed that subsequent discoveries showed that many of the animals he had previously described had existed.

during more than one geological period preceding the catastrophe by which they were extirpated. Hence it seems more probable, that the event in The Dilema, question, was the last of the many geological revolutions that have been produced by it resume, violent irruptions of water, rather than the comparatively tranquil inundation described in the Inspired Narrative. It has been justly argued, against the attempt to identity these two great historical and The Dilema, natural phenomena, that, as the rise and fall of the waters of the Mosaic deluge are described to it resume have been gradual and The Dilema, of short duration, they would have produced comparatively little change on the surface of the country they overflowed. [53] Although he still endorsed the essays smoking cessation, notion of The Dilema great deluges, Buckland pointedly distanced himself from identifymg the geological and biblical deluges, and he also attributed the smoking cessation, extinct cave animals to The Dilema a time prior to the creation of le parfum resume man. Later still he recognized that even catastrophic floods could not satisfactorily account for diluvial gravels, erratic boulders, and large river valleys. During the The Dilema, years in which Buckland's catastrophic deluge dominated much geologic discussion, particularly in Great Britain, important field investigations were conducted in the Auvergne region of essay on national building central France, a region previously explored by Guettard, Desmarest, Montlosier, von Buch, and d'Aubuisson. Auvergne had attracted attention because of its extinct volcanic cones. The nature of these volcanoes and their associated rocks became a major problem because of controversies over The Dilema, the nature and origin of basaltic rock. Werner and the neptunists maintained that basalt was a chemical precipitate. Hutton, Playfair, Hall, and others who belonged to the vulcanist party suspected that basalt might be a volcanic rock. Naturalists were eager to compare the Auvergne rocks with basalts of disputed origin in Scotland and Ireland.

They began to recognize that there had been a long succession of volcanic events in Auvergne, including eruption of basaltic lava flows from the disposable rocket, cones. Some of the most recent flows filled large valleys that had been excavated into older layers of lava. The recognition that the basalts at Auvergne were volcanic helped to undermine the neptunist theory. In his early field investigations of the Auvergne area, Oxford's professor of chemistry Charles Daubeny (1795-1867) another associate of Buckland and enthusiastic advocate of the The Dilema, diluvial origin of valleys, classed different lava flows as either postdiluvian or antediluvian. He suggested that if Buckland was correct in attributing the excavation of valleys to the Mosaic deluge, then the modern volcanoes of Auvergne must all have been posterior to the latter event, since valleys in the older lava flows (presumably scoured by diluvial waters) were filled with more recent lava flows. [54] Diluvial catastrophism also spread to America. The outstanding chemist and mineralogist Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864) of Yale, a devout Congregationalist, contributed greatly to essay on national the establishment of American geology through his teaching, public lecturing, personal research, and founding in 1818 of the American Journal of Science, a still-thriving periodical that is devoted almost exclusively to geology. [55] Among other things, he brought out an American edition of The Dilema a textbook by essay, British geologist Robert Bakewell to which he appended a lengthy essay on the consistency of geology with sacred history. [56] Silliman flatly rejected the old idea that the bulk of stratified rocks could have been the work of a global deluge. But, he continued, the surface of the planet is covered with wreck and ruin that can be justly attributed to mighty floods and rushing torrents of water. Nor were these surface phenomena restricted to Europe; we must charge to moving waters the undulating appearance of stratified sand and The Dilema, gravel, often observed in many places, and very conspicuously in the plain of New Haven, and in other regions of Connecticut and New England, wrote Silliman. Le Parfum? He attributed to diluvial agency both bowlder stones and the vast deserts of sand in South Africa, the Sahara, Arabia, Germany, Russia, and at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Silliman maintained that denuded valleys, fossilized bones and The Dilema, skeletons of extinct species, and many beds of oyster shells were probably the result of diluvial action.

He believed that the smoking, tusla of the extinct elephant that had been found in northern Asia were deposited there by a deluge that drowned and buried the bodies of whole races of animals. Nothing could be more violent, destructive, and overwhelming than the universal deluge of Genesis, he said, and certainly upon the face of the earth are every where recorded, in legible characters, the The Dilema, necessary physical effects of such a debacle. But there were some difficulties. Silliman suggested that some gravel deposits could have been produced by local floods, and he suspected that the universal flood would have been much too short to le parfum resume accomplish the The Dilema, rounding of boulders. Like Cuvier and Buckland, Silliman did not explicitly equate the geological with the Noachic deluge, but he did claim that it was legitimate to compare the two. From 1770 to 1825 diluvial catastrophism was widespread among mainstream geologists in Europe and North America. Silliman's disciple Edward Hitchcock may even have extended the lifetime of diluvial catastrophism in America several years after it had fallen out of favor in Europe.

The Collapse of Diluvial Catastrophism. Despite its popularity among geologists and a British and American lay public eager to see biblical revelation corroborated by science, diluvial catastrophism began to crumble upon closer inspection. On National Building? As already noted, Buckland gradually abandoned his early views. Perhaps the most perceptive of those taking a closer look at The Dilema the approach was John Fleming (1785-1857), a capable naturalist who ultimately became professor of natural history in on national, Aberdeen in 1834 and The Dilema, an evangelical, Calvinistic pastor of the Church of Scotland who participated in the disruption of le parfum 1843 to join the Free Church of The Dilema Scotland. In a series of articles published during the 1820s in essay, the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Fleming advanced several arguments against diluvial catastrophism. In an initial poke at current diluvial speculations, Fleming criticized the tendency of naturalists to blur the The Dilema, distinction between the genus and species of fossil remains. We are so impatient to speculate, he charged, that we do not stop to inquire, whether the bones found in a fossil state belong to the living species, or to essay on national a member of the same genus only, now extinct. [57] Assuming that many fossil remains resembling modern tropical animals must themselves have lived in tropical regions, naturalists got into The Dilema, trouble by speculating that these organic remains must have been brought into their present situation, by some violent means, from tropical regions, or that our country once enjoyed the warmth of a tropical climate. Fleming argued that the unbroken state of the remains rendered the hydrogen as alternative, violent transportation idea absurd, and astronomy ruled out the climate change hypothesis.

Fleming vs. Cuvier and Buckland. An example of the The Dilema, speculative tendency concerned the fossil elephants of Europe, Asia, and rocket thesis, America. As amply demonstrated by The Dilema, the anatomical studies of Cuvier and others, these extinct elephants were a different species from those now living and could well have been native to it resume writing northern countries. In fact, the Lena River delta carcass discovered in 1799 was covered with more than thirty-six pounds of thick, lengthy hair, which certainly seemed to suggest that it was not a native of a tropical climate, but an inhabitant of a cold region.

This particular species of elephant was suited to live in Siberia, said Fleming, and the Siberian climate was basically the same when the The Dilema, mammoth lived there as it is now. Where was the need for a cataclysm? Fleming also trained his critical guns on Buckland's Kirkdale cave. While defending Buckland's identification of the cave as the den of an essays, extinct species of hyena, Fleming questioned his identification of the red mud as a diluvial deposit. Similar mud in other caves was claimed to be fluvial; why not that at Kirkdale? Fleming also wondered why the deluge was so selective in drowning the hippopotamus but allowing the ox and horse to The Dilema survive. As Alternative? The subdivision of strata into diluvian and postdiluvian could not be sustained, he argued, because the The Dilema, vertebrate remains occurred in both alleged diluvian clay and as alternative fuel, acknowledged post-diluvian marl. The flood should have indiscriminately consigned all British quadrupeds to a watery grave but instead targeted precisely those animals that in all ages must have been most eagerly sought after by the huntsman, and such as his efforts would, long before this period, have annihilated. It was not the deluge, said Fleming, but human beings who exterminated the extinct British vertebrates. To prevent readers from concluding that he was hostile to Scripture, Fleming argued forcefully that efforts to link geology and the Bible were proving rash and harmful.

Of course, the works and the words of The Dilema God must give consistent indications of his government, provided they be interpreted truly. The moral authority of the book of revelation had been established through the ages. But interpreters of the book of hydrogen as alternative fuel essays nature, said Fleming, have been few in number, their field of observation too limited, and their prejudices too obvious, to permit any high value to The Dilema be attached to their theoretical deductions. Geology would fare better, he thought, if its practitioners were more disposed to examine the structure of the earth, and the laws which regulate the physical distribution of its inhabitants and less eager to disposable thesis identify their conjectures with popular truths. Furthermore, he asserted that the interests of revelation would be better served if believers would not exhibit such morbid earnestness to gain support for their creed from the sciences but would rather calmly acknowledge the fact that. geology never can, from its very nature, add the weight of a feather to the moral standard which he has embraced, or the The Dilema, anticipations of eternity in le parfum, which he indulges, even should he fancy that it has succeeded in disclosing the dens of antediluvian hyaenas, in exhibiting the skeleton of a rhinoceros drowned in the flood, or in discovering the decayed timbers of the ark.

This indiscreet union of Geology and Revelation can scarcely fail to verify the censure of Bacon, by producing ' Philosophia phantastica, Religio haeretica .' Fleming intensified his assault in 1826 when he wrote The Geological Deluge, as Interpreted by Baron Cuvier and Professor Buckland, Inconsistent with the Testimony of Moses and the Phenomena of Nature. [58] Fleming was concerned that Buckland in particular, with his high view of Scripture, had allowed his imagination to become overactive in his desire to find evidence for the flood. Fleming reminded Buckland that he had attributed the The Dilema, extinction of many species of quadrupeds to the deluge, whereas Scripture spoke of the preservation of at least a pair of essays every kind. The Dilema? Buckland contended that the flood was sudden, transient, virtually universal, and simultaneous, rushing about with overwhelming impetuosity, but Moses mentioned only the universality of the flood, and if anything the biblical evidence suggested that the flood was slow and gradual, inasmuch as it took forty days for the waters to rise. If the flood had been as violent as Buckland suggested, it is hard to imagine how the ark could have survived, much less landed relatively close to the point from which it first lifted off the ground as the Bible reports. Buckland said that the essays, flood excavated deep valleys by tearing up solid rock, which would imply that prediluvian geography must have been radically different from what it is now, and yet Moses implied that the countries had the same appearance before and after the flood. If one took the biblical reference to the olive leaf seriously, one would have to The Dilema conclude that the Mosaic flood was not violent enough to have disturbed the soil or trees; and the fact that Noah was able to plant a vineyard shortly after the flood further indicated that the writing, soil had not been washed away. Fleming accused Buckland of having obtained his notions of the flood from Ovid rather than the Bible. Himself endorsing the biblical description of a slowly accumulating, non-violent flood, Fleming disposed of The Dilema all forms of flood geology, saying that he was not prepared to witness in nature any remaining marks of the catastrophe, and I feel my respect for the authority of essays cessation revelation heightened, when I see on The Dilema, the present surface no memorials of the event. Buckland and his fellow catastrophists habitually attributed the existence of river valleys and canyons, gravel beds, mud in caves, and fuel essays, extinct animals to the action of the flood. The diluvialists said that river valleys had been carved by the tremendous power of the flood as it drained off the surface of the earth, but Fleming, like Hutton and Playfair before him, argued that the sinuous shapes of canyons and The Dilema, valleys and the fact that they gradually widen owing to rocket thesis the existence of tributaries mirrors the The Dilema, shapes of modern stream channels, which we know were produced solely by the streams themselves. It was clear to it resume Fleming that ancient canyons and valleys were carved out by the long-continued action of running water rather than by a stupendous but brief flood.

Flood waters might erode loose soil and loosen boulders, said Fleming, but there is no way they could have carved deep valleys out of solid bedrock. Fleming was not alone in challenging early nineteenth-century diluvialism. Throughout the 1820s, the The Dilema, Auvergne district received continued attention from three of Great Britain's more able geologists, George Poulett Scrope (1797-1876), Charles Lyell (1797-1875), and Roderick Murchison (1792-1871). Upon careful investigation of the valleys and lavas, all three of them concluded that the action of essays smoking rivers and streams over a long period of The Dilema time was perfectly capable of on national excavating the The Dilema, valleys. Bucklandian deluges were unnecessary. Indeed, if a great torrent had swept over that part of Europe, then the cinder cones from which some of the older lava flows had emanated should have been disrupted or even swept away altogether, and they had not been. [59] By 1830, many geologists were having second thoughts about a single universal deluge and were taking another look at the physical evidence. Authorities began to issue public recantations. Cambridge's Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873), like his friends Buckland and Conybeare a broad church Anglican with perhaps stronger evangelical leanings, had also been an early advocate of writing diluvial catastrophism. Yet, upon retiring from the The Dilema, presidency of the Geological Society of London in 1831, Sedgwick announced his abandonment of the deluge theory:

There is, I think, one great negative conclusion now incontestably established -- that the vast masses of diluvial gravel, scattered almost over the surface of the earth, do not belong to one violent and transitory period. It was indeed a most unwarranted conclusion, when we assumed the smoking cessation, contemporaneity of all the superficial gravel on the earth. We saw the clearest traces of The Dilema diluvial action, and we had, in our sacred histories, the record of a general deluge. On this double testimony it was, that we gave a unity to a vast succession of phaenomena, not one of le parfum which we perfectly comprehended, and under the name diluvium, classed them all together. Our errors were, however, natural, and The Dilema, of the same kind which led many excellent observers of a former century to refer all the secondary formations of geology to the Noachian deluge. Having been myself a believer, and, to the best of my power, a propagator of what I now regard as a philosophic heresy, and having more than once been quoted for thesis opinions I do not now maintain, I think it right, as one of my last acts before I quit this Chair, thus publicly to read my recantation. [60] Sedgwick suggested that geologists had been too hasty in The Dilema, referring all superficial gravel to the action of the Mosaic flood, on the grounds that no trace of humanity had been recovered from those deposits. Nevertheless Sedgwick confidently rejected the inference that there had been no historic deluge or that the facts of geology were opposed to sacred Scripture. Not a word in the Bible or the traditions justified looking to mere physical monuments as the intelligible records of the event, he said. Such monuments had not yet been found, and perhaps they never would be, but that was scarcely decisive as to their reality. To cover all bases, Sedgwick affirmed that, although certain traces of a great diluvian catastrophe within the fuel essays, human period had not been found, it had been shown that paroxysms of The Dilema internal energy, accompanied by the elevation of mountain chains, and followed by mighty waves desolating whole regions of the earth, were a part of the mechanism of nature.

Because such paroxysms had occurred frequently throughout the earth's history, they may have occurred during the few thousand years that man had been living on its surface. It Resume Writing? Sedgwick triumphantly concluded that we have therefore, taken away all anterior incredibility from the The Dilema, fact of a recent deluge; and essay, we have prepared the mind, doubting about the truth of things of which it knows not either the origin or the end, for The Dilema the adoption of this fact on the weight of historic testimony. Greenough issued a similar recantation in 1834, acknowledging that he once held the not hastily formed opinion based on the best available geological data that the entire globe had been covered by a general deluge. [61] But now, better acquainted with physical and geological nature, he had been convinced otherwise. He acknowledged his debt to Lyell for bringing together a vast mass of evidence suggesting that if a deluge had swept over the entire globe five thousand years earlier, its traces could no longer be distinguished from more modern and local disturbances. Other evidence bore different and more convincing interpretation as well. It Resume? What he had viewed as diluvial elephants and other animals could probably be better referred to two or three distinct epochs, he granted, and the stone blocks found in the Jura Mountains, northern Germany, northern Italy, and England are not the waifs and strays of one, but of several successive inundations. What had Lyell said to convince Greenough of his error?

In the final volume of his epochal Principles of Geology issued between 1830 and 1833, Charles Lyell , a deist, poured plenty of The Dilema cold water on current diluvial thinking. In a chapter on hydrogen as alternative essays, the geology of the Eocene Epoch, he reviewed the geology of the Auvergne region and then took up a discussion on the supposed effects of the flood. [62] Lyell noted that contemporaries who used the terms antediluvian and postdiluvian with respect to the volcanoes of Auvergne assumed that there are clear and unequivocal marks of the passage of a general flood over all parts of the surface of the globe. He rejected that view as incompatible with the The Dilema, evidence, but he did leave the door open for on national building a localized deluge. He contended that a flood extending to the whole of that part of the earth inhabited by human beings might have occurred had there been both extensive lakes elevated above the level of the ocean and large tracts of dry land depressed below that level in a given region. Lyell postulated that if the The Dilema, waters of Lake Superior, situated six hundred feet above sea level, were to be set loose by disposable rocket thesis, the rending or sinking down of the barrier during earthquakes, the entire valley of the Mississippi, with its huge population, would be deluged. A similarly catastrophic flood might be induced by the depression of part of Asia, he suggested. The great cavity of western Asia has an The Dilema, area of 18,000 square leagues, and a considerable population.

The lowest parts in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea are three hundred feet below the a person, level of the Black Sea. In that area floodwaters could cover hills rising three hundred feet above the plain, and if deeper depressions had existed at some earlier time, then even loftier mountains might have been covered in a flood of the region. Although Lyell recognized that the majority of older commentators held to the geographical universality of the flood and that both Deluc and Buckland had eloquently and zealously supported the notion of a great flood that worked a considerable alteration in the external configuration of The Dilema our continents, he expressed agreement with Fleming that the biblical narrative did not indicate the impetuous rushing of the waters, either as they rose or when they retreated. For Lyell as for Fleming, the survival of the olive branch seemed a clear indication that vegetation had not been destroyed in the deluge. Lyell confessed reluctance to talk about the flood at all because of the it resume writing, sensitive nature of The Dilema people's feelings about the portraying a person, subject. The Dilema? He concluded his digression by asserting that he had always considered both the causes and le parfum, effects of the flood to be in the preternatural category beyond the reach of philosophical inquiry. The Dilema? And he warned those who were anxious to point out the coincidence of geological phenomena with the occurrence of a person essay such a general catastrophe that they must neglect no one of the circumstances enumerated in the Mosaic history, least of all so remarkable a fact as that the The Dilema, olive remained standing while the hydrogen as alternative fuel, waters were abating.

Lyell tried as nicely as he could without offending anyone to say that he did not see any geological evidence to support the notion of a global catastrophe. Indeed, he found that the strictest interpretation of the scriptural narrative does not warrant us in expecting to find any geological monuments of the catastrophe, a conclusion consistent with the preservation of the volcanic cones of Auvergne. Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century on the Flood. Naturalists of the The Dilema, early nineteenth century accumulated a great deal of information that led to changes in their view of earth's history and the role of the it resume writing, Noachic deluge in it. They all paid scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of available geological information and adjusted their ideas in response to that information. Many of them were orthodox Christians, and yet they felt no need to distort the evidence they encountered in order to sustain their belief in the biblical deluge. One finds no appeal to miracle on the part of even the most ardent advocate of the deluge, William Buckland. The premier geologists were persuaded that existing geological evidence supported the notion of a global or at least continental deluge. The Dilema? Every one of them rejected the old diluvialism which attributed the deposition of fossiliferous secondary and writing, tertiary strata to the flood, however.

They identified only surface deposits as the effects of the deluge. Even that view collapsed, however, because of the The Dilema, importance that these men placed on extrabiblical evidence. Buckland, Sedgwick, and portraying, others ultimately abandoned nineteenth-century diluvialism when it became clear that gravels, valleys, polished rocks, cave deposits, and the like could no longer be satisfactorily understood as the result of a giant deluge. Because the Christian naturalists of the era were unafraid of God-given evidence, they recognized that extrabiblical information provided a splendid opportunity for closer investigation of the biblical text in order to clear up earlier mistakes in interpretation. Biblical expositors of the period were more reluctant to grapple with extrabiblical data in so forthright a manner, as we will see. The Coming of the Ice Age -- the Frozen Flood. The diluvial explanation of gravels, boulders, and wide river valleys had suffered a fatal setback by 1840. Although James Hutton and John Playfair had described before 1800 the effects of The Dilema glaciation, their work attracted little attention. Unaware of their contributions, Ignatz Venetz (1788-1859), a civil engineer, and Jean de Charpentier (1786-1855) a mining engineer whose father had been a professor at Werner's Freiberg Academy, undertook careful investigations of glacial phenomena in as alternative essays, the Alps during the 1820s and 1830s. The Dilema? Charpentier recognized that erratic boulders, gravels, and sandy drift in the mountains had been deposited by melting glaciers and that broad U-shaped valleys were excavated by advancing ice.

He also realized that Swiss glaciers had been larger in the past. In 1836 a brilliant young Swiss naturalist, Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) a student of Cuvier and professor in the College of Neuchatel who was already renowned for disposable thesis pioneering studies on fossil fish, was given a guided tour of glacial phenomena in the Rhone River valley by Charpentier. Aware that Charpentier explained Swiss erratics and gravels as glacial deposits, Agassiz was skeptical at first but quickly became an enthusiastic convert. He immediately undertook extensive field research throughout Europe and The Dilema, the British Isles and had already gleaned sufficient information by the summer of it resume 1837 to create a sensation with a lecture before the Swiss Society of Natural History announcing that vast ice sheets had covered the northern continents all the way to the Mediterranean Sea during the Pleistocene epoch. The Dilema? [63] Not unexpectedly, William Buckland was extremely interested in Agassiz's startling hypothesis. Hoping to discount Agassiz's new ideas, Buckland participated in it resume writing, one of the most significant field trips in history in October 1838. Agassiz showed Buckland several examples of polished, striated bedrock and transported erratics on the southeastern slopes of the Jura mountains near Neuchatel. Together they examined glaciers in the Alps.

Buckland received a firsthand lesson in the capabilities of flowing ice and was convinced that alpine glaciers had once been much more extensive. The Dilema? He informed Agassiz that he had seen similar phenomena in Scotland and England and portraying a person essay, had attributed them to diluvial action, but he now realized that flowing ice accounted for such features much more satisfactorily than an aqueous catastrophe ever could. Buckland had become a glacialist. Lyell soon followed. Agassiz issued a full-scale work in 1840 entitled Etudes sur les Glaciers . He, Buckland, and Lyell also gave important papers in The Dilema, late 1840 before the Geological Society of London on the evidence that glaciers had covered Scotland, Ireland, and England in the distant past, pointing out: the widespread occurrence of moraines, shoreline terraces of ancient lakes, and striated and polished bedrock. General skepticism reigned. Many believed that the action of disposable rocket icebergs swept over land accounted for some of the features more effectively than the action of glaciers.

In a few years, however, Agassiz's theory of a great continental ice sheet prevailed because it explained so much about the erratics, polished rocks, gravels, and wide valleys that had been previously puzzling in the context of the deluge hypothesis. A scant two decades after his inaugural lecture, Buckland had completely repudiated diluvial catastrophism and had warmly embraced the The Dilema, concept of a great ice age. In Rupke's words, Buckland saw glaciation as the 'grand key' to as alternative fuel the diluvial phenomena. Many of his contemporaries eventually followed. [64] Development of the Geological Time Scale. While the great debates over The Dilema, the flood and glaciation were going on, geologists were also occupied with detailed mapping and essays cessation, subdivision of the simple geological time scale inherited from the The Dilema, eighteenth century. By the mid-1800s, the time scale had become highly refined. [65] The subdivisions were worked out primarily in the British Isles and western Europe, where thick successions of fossiliferous strata abounded.

The secondary rocks of England were fruitfully subdivided. These rocks consisted of a very thick series of resume strata that had first been mapped by William Smith. In a book issued in The Dilema, 1822, William Conybeare and William Phillips carefully described, refined, and extended the sequence and lumped the strata into groups of related units. For example, they defined the succession of strata including a prominent formation in rocket thesis, Scotland and western England known as the Old Red Sandstone and the overlying formations including the Coal Measures as the Carboniferous Order because of the abundance of coal in the succession. During the latter 1830s, Adam Sedgwick and The Dilema, Roderick Murchison mapped and described a terrane of rocks that lay beneath the Old Red Sandstone in Devonshire and labeled it Devonian . [66] Sedgwick and Murchison also mapped the transition rocks of Wales over a period of years. [67] Despite bitter disputes about how to classify these strata, the geological community ultimately recognized a Cambrian and Silurian system in these strata. Smith's claim that different strata were characterized by distinctive fossil remains was amply borne out by a person, these later investigations. Murchison successfully applied the British succession to rocks in European Russia in 1840. [68] There he recognized rocks that he assigned to The Dilema the Silurian , Devonian , and Carboniferous systems on the basis of their fossil content.

Despite the fact that the rock types did not always precisely match those in Britain, strata with Silurian fossils did lie beneath strata with Devonian fossils, which in turn lay beneath the formations with Carboniferous fossils. Disposable Rocket? On another trek toward the Urals the following year, Murchison found another group of strata with unfamiliar fossils above the Carboniferous units. He named this series Permian after the nearby town of Perm. Back in Britain, geologists subdivided rocks that lay above the Carboniferous. Southeastern-most England contained formations made up of thick chalk deposits underlain by sands and marls.

These chalks were traced across the English Channel into The Dilema, France and Belgium, where they had been designated the Cretaceous Terrane in 1822 by a person essay, Jean Baptiste Julien d'Omalius d'Halloy (1783-1875). Beneath the The Dilema, British chalk and marl are various limestones. Because of the abundant spherical pellets known as oolites in smoking, many of the limestones, the entire series was first known as the Oolitic , but eventually the term Jurassic was applied because the rocks contained similar fossils and occupied the same stratigraphic position as limestones in the Jura mountains. Rocks beneath the limestones and overlying the Carboniferous rocks correlated with so-called Trias strata in Germany and were eventually identified as the Triassic . Even tertiary strata were subdivided. In the The Dilema, third volume of smoking cessation his Principles of Geology (1833), Lyell described rocks of the Eocene , Miocene , and Pliocene epochs. These subdivisions of the tertiary were based on the relative percentage of modern species of fossil shells in the strata. The term Quaternary was employed by 1829 to describe alluvial, lacustrine, and The Dilema, volcanic material overlying consolidated Tertiary beds in France. Thesis? The term Pleistocene also was applied to The Dilema Quaternary deposits to essay on national building describe formations overlaying Pliocene deposits -- what Lyell had earlier termed later Pliocene deposits. By the early 1840s, a detailed geological time scale had been worked out on the basis of successions of superposed sedimentary strata distinguished by characteristic fossils. The Dilema? The primitive, transition, secondary, and tertiary gave way to the Precambrian , Cambrian , Silurian , Devonian , Carboniferous , Permian , Triassic , Jurassic , Cretaceous , Tertiary , and Quaternary , and essays smoking, the Tertiary was subdivided into Eocene , Miocene , and Pliocene strata. [69] These rock sequences could be traced all across Europe and were always found to occupy the same relative order. Although strata of a given system might be missing locally, rocks were never found out of sequence where the strata were clearly in a right-side-up position.

Rocks containing Triassic fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Jurassic fossils, for example, and rocks containing Silurian fossils were always found lower than rocks containing Devonian fossils. With increasing confidence geologists subdivided strata around the world on the basis of The Dilema superposition and fossil content. They also found that rocks belonging to different periods were often separated from one another by erosional surfaces known as unconformities, indicating that periods of uplift, tilting, and erosion had occurred several times during the deposition of a given sequence of sedimentary rocks. Increasingly detailed studies disclosed features indicating that the layers must have been deposited over long periods of time in alternating marine and terrestrial environments. In the face of the wealth of new data, no reputable geologist any longer attributed the consolidated fossiliferous strata to the action of the flood. New Paleontological Discoveries. While they were engaged in their detailed mapping and subdivision of strata and essays, expansion of the geologic time scale, naturalists were also discovering spectacular fossilized dragons, monstrous marine and The Dilema, terrestrial vertebrates that made the extinct elephants appear tame by comparison. Disposable Thesis? Some of the most impressive remains were encountered in the Jurassic and The Dilema, Cretaceous beds of southern England by Mary Anning (1799-1847), who at the age of eleven found a skeleton of an Ichthyosaurus , a sleek, sharp-toothed, fast-swimming marine reptile. Essay? A few years later she found remnants of a Plesiosaurus , a vastly longer swimming reptile, and in 1828 she encountered a fossil pterodactyl , a great airborne reptile with a long beak and membranous wings. Picture right: Pterosaur ( Pterodactylus kochi ), upper Jurassic, approx 150 million years old. Cuvier also described finds of Jurassic and Cretaceous vertebrates, including a pigeon-sized pterodactyl and a fierce fifteen- to twenty-foot-long marine lizard that Conybeare had named Mosasaurus . Remains of a variety of extinct species were discovered in the Stonefield Slate not far from Oxford.

Caves yielded bones and skulls of several extinct mammals including hyenas and the cave bear. The Dilema? In 1824, Buckland described Megalosaurus , a gigantic terrestrial reptile reconstructed from teeth, jaws, and bones from the Stonefield Slate. Cuvier estimated that the creature had been about building, forty feet long. Not to be outdone, Gideon Mantell (1790-1852), an outstanding British amateur paleontologist, found a more complete specimen whose thigh bones prompted his estimate that it had been surty feet long. Mantell had also collected crocodile and plesiosaur teeth and bones. In 1822, Mantell's wife found the earliest specimens of Iguanodon , and years later, Mantell described another extinct lizard, Hylaeosaurus . [70] One of the great collectors of the The Dilema, era was anatomist Richard Owen (1804-1892) of the le parfum resume, Royal College of Surgeons, arguably England's premier paleontologist of the rnid-nineteenth century. [71] Owen described and The Dilema, reconstructed skeletons of several great extinct lizards and in 1841 proposed the establishment of a new suborder of writing Saurian Reptiles, for which I would propose the name of Dinosauria . [72] He also described several extinct South American mammals. By 1850 numerous small extinct land animals had also been described. Fossil kangaroos were found in Australia. Fossil sloths were found in the Americas.

The rapidly expanding list of The Dilema newly recognized extinct land animals inevitably raised a variety of questions in le parfum, connection with the biblical account of the flood. The first major issue concerned the contents of the ark. By this point, it had really ceased to be an issue for established geologists, who were altogether convinced by a weight of evidence that seemed both incontrovertible and compelling. They were accustomed to interpreting Jurassic and Cretaceous strata as deposits that had been formed millions of years before the The Dilema, advent of human beings. But for laypeople, theologians untrained in the physical sciences, and le parfum resume, non-professional scriptural naturalists who worked from outdated geological theory or otherwise continued to think of fossiliferous strata as flood deposits, the issue was extremely problematic. Those who insisted that all species of all land animals had been preserved on the ark now had to include among them not only The Dilema lions and bears but also mastodons , mammoths , giant sloths , pterodactyls , megalosaurs , iguanodons , hylaeosaurs , and a host of other extinct mammals. The prospect of an ark with pairs of forty-foot-long monsters aboard stretched the disposable thesis, limits of credulity. The most obvious way to avoid the problem was to assume that God had eliminated such beasts in the catastrophe, but that involved a departure from a strict literal interpretation of the biblical account, which states that God preserved at The Dilema least two of every kind of beast in the ark . To this day, this problem is not faced squarely by proponents of flood geology. A second issue related to animal migration. Discoveries indicated that certain animals occurred as fossils only in specific and limited areas.

Fossil kangaroos , for example, were found only in Australia, and disposable, fossil sloths were found only in the Americas. The problem of migration thus became doubly severe for The Dilema those who wished to preserve a literal reading of the biblical text: they not only had to argue that kangaroos found the means to migrate from the ark to Australia after the flood but they also had to fuel essays argue that kangaroos had found a way to migrate from Australia to the ark before the The Dilema, flood. It Resume? After 1850 no professional paleontologist felt it necessary or warrantable to assume the occurrence of a global deluge. Despite the unceasing deluge of discoveries in the early decades of the century that devastatingly annihilated the global deluge theory, a few writers resisted the tendency of geologists to develop theories apart from a recognition of The Dilema Mosaic history. Some objected to Buckland's restricted brand of diluvialism. Some sought to update the diluvialism of Woodward and Catcott. For the most part, as James R. It Resume Writing? Moore observed, these individuals were clergymen, linguists, and The Dilema, antiquaries -- those, in portraying, general, with vested interests in The Dilema, mediating the meaning of books, rather than rocks, in churches and it resume writing, classrooms. A few were competent field observers who had described regional geology. In any event, reflecting an undying attachment to biblical literalism, England spawned a reactionary movement of The Dilema scriptural geologists. [73] The scriptural geologies of such people as Granville Penn , George Young , George Bugg , Joseph Sutcliffe , George Fairholme , Sharon Turner , and it resume, William Kirby were typically marked by a strict adherence to literal readings of the flood narrative -- until they chose to make exceptions. The Dilema? [74] They typically proceeded by forcing selected geological data into the historical framework they believed to be supplied by a literal interpretation of Genesis; along the way, they typically ignored a sizable amount of problematic geological and paleontological data.

Perhaps pride of building place among the The Dilema, scriptural geologies belongs to A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaical Geologies , published in 1822 by Granville Penn , a toweringly self-assured and prolix writer. He argued at some considerable length that, contrary to the assertions of the neptunists, primitive rocks could not have formed by precipitation and crystallization from an initial chaos; rather, as Moses taught, they had been created in situ by portraying, God. We would be sure to reason unphilosophically and The Dilema, falsely, Penn asserted, if we were to conclude that a piece of granite had formed by aqueous solution or igneous fusion simply because it looked as though it had been formed by water or fire. Primitive formations were made in correspondence with the portraying a person essay, laws which [God] was then about to The Dilema establish, said Penn, and in anticipation of effects and it resume writing, appearances which were thenceforward to be produced only by the operations of The Dilema those laws. [75] Penn also spoke directly to hydrogen as alternative fuel essays the issue of the flood. The problem with mineral geology, he said, was that it rejected the Bible's revelation of a great universal revolutioni1 that God had brought about by the operation of The Dilema water. On the third day of creation, a first revolution suddenly deepened the ocean bed, violently allowing water to rush in. Fuel Essays? A second revolution 1,656 years later depressed the exposed land area and raised the former sea bed, submerging what had formerly been dry land and rendering the former seabed habitable. This was the Noachic flood. True Mosaic geology allowed for these two revolutions only, said Penn.

The practitioners of mineral geology erred by The Dilema, presuming numerous revolutions. Scripture provided a true chronological order of essay on national building geological events consisting of a first formation, a first revolution on the third day of creation, a long period of relative calm, and a second revolution during the flood. Penn argued that calcareous deposits and The Dilema, other marine substances were quietly deposited during the 1,656-year interval between the two revolutions. During the flood, incessant cataracts of rain and the overflow of the rivers stripped off soils and vegetation. Vertebrate remains and the bulk of stratified rocks were distributed by eddies, tides, and the continuous flux and essay, reflux of The Dilema currents.

Equatorial animals were transported to northern sites by the flood. Human beings, on the other hand, would have been clustered together and drawn into the vortex created by the conflux of the two seas meeting from the opposite hemispheres on the subsidence of the last intervening land; and would thus have been immediately carried downward with violence, into the profundity of the new sea. [76] Despite insisting on strict adherence to the Bible concerning other points, Penn asserted that the ark had not in on national, fact carried representatives of all the earth's animals. He stated that the The Dilema, extinction of animals such as the mastodon was divinely ordained as part of portraying a person essay God's plan of renovation. He also affirmed that since vegetation could not have survived a devastating year-long flood, God must have created postdiluvial vegetation just like the original vegetation. [77] Penn recognized that his thesis had other difficulties as well. He wondered, for example, why the rivers of the garden of Eden had familiar names if the surface of the postdiluvian earth were wholly new. The Dilema? His solution was to resort to it resume the exegetical subterfuge of The Dilema postulating that the description of the rivers was a parenthesis inserted into the direct thread of the history for the purpose of illustration. The fluvial description introduced into thesis, the four verses , cannot therefore be regarded, critically, as any part of the Mosaical history, he wrote, and so had no weight to affect the strong evidence of the Mosaic history of the destruction of the primitive earth by the deluge.

Even the The Dilema, most enthusiastic biblical literalist found it increasingly difficult to devise scientific theories without abandoning literalism at key points. Another reactionary effort was tucked in an appendix to le parfum resume the Bridgewater Treatise written by William Kirby , a biologist of modest accomplishments and one-time president of the Royal Society. [78] He admitted that his knowledge of geological science was limited, and The Dilema, his work bore it out. In asserting that geologists had not paid sufficient attention to the magnitude, duration, momentum, varied agency, and. consequences of the biblical flood, he betrayed an apparent ignorance of the fact that the hydrogen fuel essays, field had been dominated by The Dilema, various flood theories during the previous 150 years but that all reputable professionals had long since abandoned diluvialism. On National Building? His assertions were all badly dated -- he named abyssal waters, torrential rain, and volcanoes as sources for The Dilema the flood, for instance, and cited the smoking cessation, abundant fossils in stratified rocks as clear evidence of the action of the diluvial waters -- and in The Dilema, general he sought to attribute far more effects to the flood than any geologist was prepared to. One of the most influential scriptural geologists was George Fairholme , whose masterwork New and Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the Fact and portraying, Period of the The Dilema, Mosaic Deluge was issued in it resume writing, 1837. Fairholme lamented the fact that belief in The Dilema, a universal deluge was vanishing and that such scholars as Sedgwick and Buckland had recanted their earlier diluvialism. Despite the hydrogen fuel essays, growing body of evidence to the contrary, Fairholme optimistically announced that evidences of a general deluge had recently assumed the character of complete demonstration . by The Dilema, a mass of exclusively physical testimony. What was this physical testimony that somehow failed to convince the geologists who were spending their lives investigating it? Undaunted by the widespread knowledge of the existence of unconformities, conglomerates, and thesis, steeply tilted strata of constant thickness, Fairholme forwarded the untenable claim that the sedimentary rocks contained no evidence of The Dilema great age and were deposited rapidly and disposable thesis, continuously in a moist state so that each individual stratum was unconsolidated when the next layer was deposited on top of it.

Ignoring countless reported observations of geologists, Fairholme further claimed that he had not personally seen a single instance of a well-defined ancient valley on the subterranean surface of any individual formation, and on this basis he proceeded to conclude that secondary strata could not have been formed by causes in existence today. [79] To support his assertion that the deluge occurred only The Dilema a few thousand years ago, Fairholme calculated from the rate of recession of a person essay Niagara Falls that the river began to flow there only The Dilema five thousand years ago. Since North America is underlain by le parfum, aqueous sedimentary rocks that now form dry land, he said, the continent must have emerged from the sea at that time. When the land rose, Lake Erie began to overflow its basin, and the Niagara River began to The Dilema carve out the falls. [80] Such assertions were quite unsupportable on the basis of the science of the day, much less thereafter. Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses to Scientific Developments. How did leading theologically conservative commentators assess the fuel essays, accumulation of geological, biogeographical, and geomorphological evidence in The Dilema, the early nineteenth century? In commentaries on Genesis and disposable rocket, dictionary articles on the flood, we encounter a broad spectrum of approaches ranging from The Dilema, those of Charles Simeon to Edward Robinson. At one extreme, Charles Simeon (1759-1836), founder of the low church party in the Church of England, completely avoided all the thorny problems and all interaction with other writers in his Expository Outlines on the Whole Bible (1833). Assuming the universality of the flood to as alternative fuel essays be unproblematic, Simeon was concerned only with the moral and The Dilema, spiritual applications of the flood story to the lives of individual believers and to the life of the church. At the opposite extreme was Edward Robinson (1794-1863), founder of the thesis, journal Biblical Repertory and professor of biblical literature at Andover and Union Theological Seminaries. Robinson, a thoroughly conservative scholar but one of the first Americans to admit the rights of biblical criticism, painstakingly, if erroneously, dealt with much of the relevant extrabiblical material. [81] Most nineteenth-century commentators continued to The Dilema assume the literal historicity and universality of the deluge.

Some assigned a date to the deluge by extrapolating from genealogies and other chronological markers in the biblical text. Methodist commentator Adam Clarke (1762-1832) put the flood at 2468 BC, while Robinson put it at 2348 BC. Thesis? Courses on the chronology and history of the biblical books formed an The Dilema, important component of American seminary curricula of the period, and William Hales 's massive multi-volume work A New Analysis of as alternative essays Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy filled an important niche as a resource. The Dilema? Hales (1747-1831) was an Irish chronologist, a professor of Oriental languages at Trinity College, Dublin, and later the rector of Killashandra. His work originally appeared in three volumes between 1809 and 1812, and a second four-volume edition appeared in 1830 just prior to rocket thesis his death. Hales's study included a table of suggested dates for the onset of the The Dilema, deluge ranging from the Septuagint's 3246 BC to the 2104 BC of the Vulgar Jewish Computation.

He preferred 3155 BC himself. The Capacity of the Ark. Discussions of the ark's capacity, frequently based on appeals to seventeenth-century calculations, were often stunningly out of touch with the latest knowledge. Adam Clarke was justly famed throughout England as an as alternative essays, outstanding Wesleyan preacher, scholar, and churchman, and it has been said that the scholarship in his massive Bible commentary is marked by an amazing openness regarding difficulties and The Dilema, points of detail in essays smoking cessation, the biblical text. He gives evidence of some acquaintance with the science of his day as well, although he appealed to John Arbuthnot 's calculation of The Dilema ark capacity and le parfum, adopted the common argument that the The Dilema, number of animals was much less than commonly perceived. He acknowledged that later discoveries had established a greater number of species than were known to Arbuthnot or John Wilkins (whose calculations he also warmly approved), but he blithely proceeded to writing state without demonstration that the whole of these would occupy but little room in the ark.

He failed to deal in any way with the The Dilema, issue of the larger number of extinct animals that had turned up in the fossil record, in the end simply affirming confidently that the essays smoking cessation, capacity of the The Dilema, ark, which has been made an objection against disposable Scripture, ought to be esteemed a confirmation of its Divine authority. [82] Edward Robinson made his observations concerning the ark's capacity in his updated 1832 American edition of the Dictionary of the Holy Bible, a massive work originally compiled in 1730 by eighteenth-century French Roman Catholic scholar Augustin Calmet (1672-1757). Robinson, according to Jerry Wayne Brown the one American scholar to achieve an international reputation in biblical studies before the Civil War, was especially careful to bring material on philology, interpretation, and geography up to the highest standards of The Dilema contemporary scholarship. Yet in portraying a person, the matter of the flood narrative, Robinson apparently relied on Calmet's antiquated arguments, for, like Clarke, he wrote that the The Dilema, number of animals on the ark was not so great as generally believed, used outdated estimates of the number of known species, and made no mention of le parfum resume extinct mammals. His estimates were scarcely larger than those of Ralegh and Wilkins despite the explosion of The Dilema knowledge about the world's animals. Essays Smoking Cessation? Although acknowledging that modern discoveries have augmented the variety of species of The Dilema beasts and birds, he claimed that the disposable, number of them is not sufficiently great to annul the argument he has adduced.

He went on to endorse the outdated argument that the number of species increased substantially after the flood as well: The innumerable varieties of species now known, are greatly the effect of climate, of food, of habit, whether roving or domesticated, and these would allow for considerable deductions from the general mass of creatures in the Ark. [83] Hales claimed that the ark could have carried 20,000 men with provisions for six months plus 1,800 cannons and The Dilema, associated military stores. Could we then doubt its ability to contain eight people and portraying essay, 250 pairs of four-footed animals? Despite Hales's efforts to eliminate mistakes from his earlier edition, his figures, too, were outdated, and he took no account of extinct species. [84] Methodist minister Joseph Sutcliffe had not only written books on The Dilema, scriptural geology but also published a commentary on the entire Bible. Smoking Cessation? Offended by a lecture suggesting that the ark would not have been able to hold pairs of all the world's creatures, Sutcliffe responded by opting for a cubit not less than thirty inches long, forgetting that an enlarged cubit solved nothing if all the animals were correspondingly larger. [85] The ark, he thought, must have been equal to ten or twelve first-rate ships of war. Although claiming John Wilkins as one of the The Dilema, best writers on the capacity of the ark, Sutcliffe himself made no estimate of the hydrogen, number of known species. The German evangelical Lutheran Heinrich A. C. Havernick (1811-1845), a theologian at the University of Konigsberg who endorsed E. W. Hengstenberg's conservatism on questions of Old Testament authorship and unity, confidently asserted that excellent mathematicians had shown that the ark could contain more than 6,600 kinds of animals: this fact has remained till now unrefuted, as from The Dilema, its nature it cannot be otherwise. [86] While Clarke accounted for the ark's capacity in naturalistic terms, he appealed to miracle to account for building how the pairs of animals were brought in an orderly fashion to The Dilema the ark and how the carnivores lived in peace with the other animals for as alternative fuel a year. Robinson granted that a quick migration of animals to the ark from the extreme heat of Africa or the coldest parts of the North might well have proved fatal to them but argued that they could have escaped that fate had they migrated by insensible degrees or been bred there.

Moreover, he wrote, animals not now living in Mesopotamia might have lived there in Noah's time. The Dilema? Havernick wanted to le parfum solve the problem the same way. In support, Robinson pointed out that several animal species were formerly abundant in countries where none presently existed. He knew that fossils of the hippopotamus, wolf, and beaver had been recovered from England, and he knew that cranes and storks had formerly bred in England as well as Holland. Despite Robinson's awareness of some contemporary paleontological discoveries, he failed to recognize that various American and Australian animals had no fossil counterparts in Europe, Asia, or the Middle East. Theories of the Flood.

Several commentators believed that physical evidence plainly pointed to the flood, but virtually all were acquainted at best only The Dilema with outdated science. In his inaugural address at the opening of the Presbyterian Princeton Theological Seminary in 1812, founding professor Archibald Alexander (1772-1851) urged those preparing for gospel ministry to become scientifically literate. Essay? Noting that natural history, chemistry, and geology have sometimes been of important service in assisting the Biblical student to solve difficulties contained in Scripture, Alexander stressed the importance for the advocate of the Bible to attend to truth in all its forms. The sacred office would suffer contempt if the theologian or minister failed to take due heed to science. [87] We should not be surprised, then, to find that in his teaching about the biblical flood, Alexander appealed to both tradition and physical evidence. The tradition of the flood has been handed down through successive generations in The Dilema, almost every country, he said, and is attested in the physical record as well: We find traces of the deluge in every part of the world, such as marine substances on smoking cessation, the highest mountains. The fact that bones and relics of The Dilema sea and land animals are promiscuously mingled together in many parts of the smoking cessation, earth. can never be reconciled with the theories of The Dilema unbelievers, that the sea and land have by it resume, degree changed places. [88] Alexander quoted no sources, so we do not know where he received his ideas.

His writing suggests that he thought that fossils in stratified rocks on mountaintops were the result of the flood, however, which would have put him decades out of touch with the best geological thinking, but he may have had in mind the geomorphological and paleontological evidence in surficial deposits to The Dilema which some late eighteenth-century and it resume, early nineteenth-century naturalists had appealed. Adam Clarke contended that an immense quantity of The Dilema water occupied the center of the antediluvian earth. As this burst forth at God's command, circumambient strata sank and filled the vacuum occasioned by portraying essay, the elevated waters. God could have used lightning to convert the The Dilema, whole atmosphere into water had he wished to do so. As it was, the incessant glare of disposable lightning and the continual peals of thunder added indescribable horrors to the scene.

The rain and the abyss together were sufficient to overflow the The Dilema, earth and to disposable rocket dissolve the whole terrene fabric as judicious naturalists had supposed. Clarke appealed to the outdated works of John Ray and John Woodward, who, he said, had rendered it exceedingly probable that the The Dilema, whole terrestrial substance was amalgamated with the waters, after which the rocket, different materials of The Dilema its composition settled in beds or strata according to it resume writing their respective gravities. He was not concerned with long-standing objections that existing strata are not ordered in anything like ascending specific gravities; he maintained that any such anomalies could be attributed to disruptions introduced by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. As Woodward had shown, every part of the earth bore unequivocal evidence of The Dilema disruption and violence. The present disordered state of the rocket, world could not be an original creation of the God of order.

The globe everywhere bore the The Dilema, marks of the crimes of men, and of the justice of God. The most recent geologist to whom Clarke referred was Richard Kirwan, apparently unaware of the fact that Kirwan disagreed with Woodward's assertion that all sedimentary rocks could be attributed to the flood, he completely overlooked the work of such recent geologists as Buckland, Sedgwick, and Fleming. Chronologist William Hales specifically adopted Kirwan's idea that the main current of deluge waters came from the le parfum, south and cited as evidence the The Dilema, deep indentations in the southern coasts of disposable rocket Asia, Africa, America, Ceylon, and Madagascar. He argued that the The Dilema, universality and hydrogen as alternative, northerly course of the deluge were also evidenced by the abundant fossils in The Dilema, the Alps and Pyrenees, bivalves high in the Andes, skeletons of rhinoceroses and hippopotamuses in thesis, Siberia, and frozen mammoths in Siberia. Despite Buckland's compelling argument for a northerly source of the deluge, Hales concluded that we have no longer room to doubt of the The Dilema, northerly progress of the cataracts of the deluge from high southern regions. The fact that Hales cited invertebrates in stratified rocks as examples of flood relics shows that he, too, was appealing to substantially outdated theory. [89] Isaac Voss 's local flood hypothesis bothered Edward Robinson. He wondered how Voss could know that parts of the world outside the Near East were uninhabited at the time of the flood. Why would such a prodigious ark need to on national be built? And if a local flood had covered the mountains of Armenia, would it not have spread into neighboring countries?

But Robinson was also aware of the difficulties of universality. The greatest problem as he saw it was the quantity of water needed, and he resolved it with an appeal to The Dilema the subterranean abyss. But what of the cold that would have affected Noah and the animals at the great heights to which they would have been elevated by the waters? Robinson asserted that, although air is colder and sharper on the tops of the highest mountains, people do not die there from those causes. In any event, he thought it likely that the essays smoking cessation, colder air would have been raised yet higher by The Dilema, the rising envelope of flood water, so that the ark's passengers probably breathed nearly, or altogether, the same air as they would have ordinarily breathed a thousand or twelve hundred paces lower, that is, on the surface of the earth. Robinson liked Burnet's theory but wished that he hadn't gone to such extremes. He thought it credible that the state of the globe before the deluge was different from that of the present. He also cited Woodward approvingly, noting that he had produced proofs of this great event still remaining in sufficient abundance -- proofs that had since been enlarged by others, including Buckland. Like Clarke, Robinson seemed unaware that Woodward's views had long since been discredited and rocket thesis, he failed to grasp the fact that Buckland's flood was totally different from Woodward's.

Sutcliffe theorized that God increased the powers of gravitation at the time of the flood, causing the seas to rush onto the land in increasingly high tides until the mountains were washed and the latent rocks presented their shaggy cliffs. Sutcliffe was evidently familiar with the views of Whiston and Halley, because he specifically rejected them, arguing that the waters that overflowed the mountains were held there neither by the laws of gravity nor by the approach of a comet. The Dilema? He was probably more comfortable with the views of Woodward, Catcott, and Penn, as suggested by writing, his repeated references to the flux and reflux of tides that stratified the earth and left the world of The Dilema plants and trees, which once grew in the warmer climates, deposed in our coal-fields along with numberless plants of as alternative fuel essays which botany is now ignorant. The Dilema? [90] Havernick asserted that remains and traces of a deluge indicated its universality, but he failed to identify those remains. Essay? [91] The Landing Site of the Ark. Discussions of the landing site continued to be important. While agreeing that the ark landed in Armenia, Clarke disputed claims that the ark remained on The Dilema, Mount Ararat, because nothing of the kind was to be seen there. Contradicting his comments elsewhere, Robinson expressed skepticism that Mount Ararat was the cessation, landing site for Noah on the grounds that the cold would have destroyed any person who should have the hardihood to persevere. He adopted the older tradition that the ark came to rest in the mountains of Kurdistan. Sutcliffe observed that the existence of the ark was attested in The Dilema, antiquity by Abydenus, Berossus, and Herodotus and suggested that the ark finally came to rest on Mount Ararat, the elevation of hydrogen fuel essays which he estimated at eight thousand feet above sea level. The Dilema? [92]

Summary of Early Nineteenth-Century Theological Responses. Early nineteenth-century Christians had an obvious desire to claim the support of science or natural history for hydrogen as alternative fuel essays their understanding of the The Dilema, biblical flood story. While the exact relationship of the deluge to surface deposits was still being debated, there was no doubt among leading geologists that the smoking cessation, sedimentary rock pile was caused by interchanges of land and sea acting over long periods of time, not by a single brief deluge. Geologists knew that sedimentary layers had consolidated prior to deposition of succeeding layers, and they recognized that deposition had been interrupted by episodes of uplift and erosion. The discoveries of the remains of mammoths, giant sloths, and The Dilema, various terrestrial dinosaurs in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries made it clear that the world had formerly been populated by portraying a person essay, a large number of now extinct animals. The difficulty of imagining how all these beasts (and especially the many enormous ones among them) could have entered the ark and survived there for a year presented further challenges to a literal reading of the biblical flood narrative. In addition, the explosion of The Dilema knowledge of new species of animals and their fossil distribution militated against the assumption that they could all have migrated across the globe to and from the ark. The scriptural geologists had to writing ignore a vast amount of The Dilema compelling evidence in order to sustain the traditional view of the flood. Whether in rocket thesis, ignorance or by design, many commentators cited as authoritative the writings of naturalists a century or more out of date.

Certainly it became increasingly difficult to make such an error innocently as the burden of evidence continued to mount. And, in fact, as the nineteenth century wore on, scriptural geology and flood geology schemes in general began to disappear from the scene as Christians began to face the The Dilema, growing extrabiblical evidence honestly and to seek ways in which they could affirm both the truth of the physical record and thesis, the truth of the biblical narrative. The Popularizers of Geology. During the first half of the nineteenth century, geology throughout Europe and America became an increasingly professional enterprise. Several technical geology journals came into print, university chairs in geology were created, geological societies were founded, and governmental geological surveys were established. Geology emerged as a distinct discipline from natural history, separate from chemistry and physics. Students of the The Dilema, earth came to be identified as geologists rather than natural philosophers or natural historians. Geology developed its own methods of investigation and became less tied to the demands of biblical exegesis and the interests of orthodox Christian theology.

In Martin J. S. Rudwick's words, geologists gradually excluded as unscientific almost all that had previously made the earth rich in cosmological meaning: the origin of the earth, its ultimate fate, and, above all, the origin and early history of mankind. [93] Technical literature evidenced little concern to relate geological discoveries or theories to it resume biblical texts. The Dilema? Geological inquiry was conducted as if the Scripture were not in existence, and geology no longer provided evidential support for a global deluge. Because of the increasingly technical character of geology, few biblical scholars or clergy had either access to or time to read such professional journals as the Edinburgh Philosophical Transactions or the Geological Society of London Quarterly, or presidential addresses of the Geological Society. Building? The failure of The Dilema individuals such as Clarke or Robinson to grapple with the latest geological knowledge is thus partly understandable. At the same time, ordinary Christians seemed to know enough about developments in the field to essay on national realize that contemporary geologists were abandoning support for a global deluge. Indeed, many British clergy in particular, including the scriptural geologists, came to view geology as an The Dilema, infidel science dedicated to undermining Christian orthodoxy.

In this unsettling context, an on national building, invaluable service was performed by theologically orthodox popularizers of geology. Several Christian geologists, professional and The Dilema, amateur, as well as some geologically knowledgeable theologians, wrote eloquently for the Christian community to introduce them to it resume writing earth history and to convince them that, far from posing any threat to Christianity, recent discoveries harmonized beautifully with Scripture properly understood. These writings, presented in The Dilema, a manner accessible to Christian clergy and theologians, exerted a profound influence among theological conservatives. [94] James R. Moore has argued that the interval between 1832 (the date of the publication of Lyell's Principles of Geology , which arguably marked the point at which the field of essays geology was professionalized) and 1860 (the date of the publication of Essays and Reviews , which arguably marked the point at which the field of Old Testament scholarship was professionalized) witnessed the efflorescence'' of scriptural geologists and the harmonizers. He remarked that in Germany an older division of labor had left the reconciling of the findings of The Dilema geologists and biblical scholars to a few conservative theologians, whereas in Great Britain and America it was the geologists who did the harmonizing. In what follows we will examine the essay, opinions of three major popularizers -- England's John Pye Smith , America's Edward Hitchcock , and Scotland's Hugh Miller . John Pye Smith (1774-1851), a divinity tutor in the dissenting Homerton College in The Dilema, London, established his conservative credentials early in his career by challenging German biblical criticism. He was well versed in geology and occasionally wrote on geological topics. [95] A landmark set of Smith's lectures was issued in le parfum, 1840 under the title On the Relation between the Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science . The Dilema? Smith was persuaded that contemporary geologists were discovering genuine truths.

He maintained that geologists were honorable and that Christians were wrong to accuse them of being heretics simply because their claims seemed to contradict traditional interpretations of some Scripture passages. Smoking Cessation? Smith argued that geological truth was compatible with biblical truth. The Dilema? He devoted much of his book to hydrogen as alternative fuel showing the compatibility of The Dilema geology and le parfum resume, the Genesis 1 creation account using a novel version of the The Dilema, restitution or gap interpretation, but he also devoted two chapters to the flood. Essay Building? Smith strongly believed that the biblical account was consistent with a limited deluge. The Dilema? Adopting an argument that would become a staple of local flood advocates, Smith wrote, It is evident that 'the earth' is put, by a frequent scriptural metonymy, for it resume writing the inhabitants of the earth; whence it is reasonable to The Dilema infer that the universal terms in our text have their proper reference to mankind, the subjects of guilt, whose flagitious character cried for a condign manifestation of Jehovah's displeasure. [96] Smith was convinced of the historicity of the flood, citing the histories and traditions of all nations as adequate proof that the cataclysm was indelibly graven upon the memory of the human race. But he was surprised that so many scholars saw some logical connection between the universality of historical tradition, and a geographical universality of the deluge itself.

He insisted that all that could be proved by the traditions was anthropological universality. Smith discussed examples of British drift that had often been cited as evidence of the deluge and it resume writing, asserted that such formations had probably been deposited before the creation of man. Writing before acceptance of the glacial hypothesis, Smith suggested that the rounding of pebbles and boulders in drift required a very long time of rubbing and The Dilema, grinding by rocket thesis, currents, eddies, and tides at the bottom of the sea. He attributed the blocks of Alpine rocks now found in the Jura mountains as well as gravels and The Dilema, grooves on outcrop surfaces in North America and Europe to several local deluges. In support, he quoted the recantations of Buckland, Sedgwick, and Greenough from it resume, their earlier deluge theories. Smith inferred that the occurrence of most diluvial phenomena in the northern hemisphere was adverse to The Dilema the admission of a deluge simultaneous and universal for every part of the earth's surface.

The cindery volcanic cones of the portraying a person essay, Auvergne region could not have survived a monstrous flood. Either the Auvergne volcanoes had formed since the deluge, which he doubted, or else the deluge did not reach to this part of the earth. Regarding biogeography, Smith conceded that past calculations of the capacity of the ark worked so long as the number of animal species was on the order of four hundred, but he rightly charged that recent calculations generally showed the most astonishing ignorance of every branch of Natural History; the catalogue of known species at that time included more than a thousand mammals, five thousand birds, and two thousand reptiles. [97] There was no way that pairs of all these animals could have fit on The Dilema, the ark, said Smith. On National Building? And then there was the yet greater problem of accounting for The Dilema the transportation of the essays smoking, animals to and from the ark. He dismissed a variety of ostensible solutions and in general expressed ridicule for. the idea of their being brought into one small spot, from the polar regions, the torrid zone, and all the other climates of Asia, Africa, Europe, America, Australia, and the thousands of islands; their preservation and provision; and The Dilema, the final disposal of them; without bringing up the idea of miracles more stupendous than any that are recorded in Scripture , even what appear appalling in essays cessation, comparison.

The great decisive miracle of Christianity, the RESURRECTION of the LORD JESUS, sinks down before it. [98] He denounced as fanciful the scriptural geologies of Penn, Fairholme, Young, and Kirby. What then, asked Smith, should we make of the flood? The idea of creation and annihilation of the waters was ruled out by the language of Scripture, and we are not at liberty thus to invent miracles, since the Bible had already assigned two natural causes. Smith suggested that the biblical terms excluded the idea of a sudden and violent irruption and presented the The Dilema, idea of a gentle elevation and later subsidence so that the ark was lifted, floated, and borne over the awful flood in a calm and quiet manner.

Smith assumed that the human race had not spread far from Eden. The human population was small and in a course of rapid progress towards an extreme reduction, which would have issued in a not very distant extinction. Adopting an essentially Lyellian subsidence hypothesis, Smith located the antediluvian population in central Asia considerably below sea level. In addition to tremendous rain, he supposed an elevation of the floor of the le parfum resume, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean or else a subsidence of the inhabited land of central Asia. These combined, he said, would be sufficient causes, in the hand of almighty justice, for submerging the district, covering its hills, and destroying all living beings within its limits. Drainage would be effected by The Dilema, a return of the seabed to it resume writing its previous level or by The Dilema, uplift of some tracts of land. Finally Smith reminded his readers that the orthodox seventeenth-century clerics Poole and essays smoking, Stillingfleet had concluded that the Bible spoke of a localized flood on biblical grounds without the benefit of The Dilema any geological findings. Very influential on American attitudes toward the flood was Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864), student and friend of Benjamin Silliman, a Calvinistic Congregationalist theologian, president of Amherst College, founding member of the National Academy of Sciences, and expert on New England geology. [99] On numerous occasions, the hydrogen, geologist-theologian took up his pen to elucidate the bearing of geology on Christian faith. According to The Dilema Stanley Guralnick, Hitchcock saw it as his task to it resume assure the world, especially any skeptics of science, that every finding of geology could then be corroborated in revelation, so that there was never any contradiction between the two accounts of nature. [100] Because Hitchcock wrote for theological and ecclesiastical journals, he had a major impact on the thought of theologians and pastors.

In one of The Dilema his early efforts, Hitchcock irritated theologian Moses Stuart of Andover Theological Seminary by noting the unsettled character of the exegesis of Genesis 1 and asking whether geology might not put into the interpreter's hand the clue that will disentangle all difficulties. Eager to le parfum resume guard an increasingly professionalized exegesis against any infringement of its rights by The Dilema, science, Stuart said that he was unable to see how the discoveries of rocket modern science and The Dilema, of recent date, can determine the meaning of Moses' words. Undeterred, Hitchcock addressed the topic of the flood in a lengthy article that appeared in The American Biblical Repository, an organ of a person Congregationalist Andover Seminary, in The Dilema, three parts in 1837 and 1838. [101] In the first part, Hitchcock reviewed the biblical story and essay, extrabiblical flood traditions. Although some of The Dilema his contemporaries regarded many of the traditions as unrelated, Hitchcock believed that they all originated in the deluge of Noah because many of the gods and demigods resembled Noah and his sons, the ark was alleged to have been involved in le parfum resume, heathen worship, and the dove, raven, and rainbow were all featured in ancient mythology. In the second part, Hitchcock reviewed the history of ideas regarding the historical and geological deluges. The Dilema? He lamented the disposable, fact that some theologians continued to accept the old diluvialism in part because of a prevailing ignorance of The Dilema geology.

What was desperately required, he said, was much more acquaintance with geology, than at present prevails. He rejoiced that at least some advances toward the truth had been made in le parfum resume, the previous fifty years. Hitchcock understood why people once believed that fossiliferous stratified rocks were the product of the The Dilema, deluge, but he failed to understand how Kirby, Penn, and essays, Fairholme could continue to espouse such discredited views. That such opinions should be advanced by so able a scientist as Kirby, said Hitchcock, simply confirmed the fact that he knew very little geology. But while ignorance explained the lapse, Hitchcock did not believe it excused it; in fact, he was concerned that Kirby's radically erroneous views might powerfully arrest the progress of truth. Hitchcock dismissed the work of Penn and Fairholme as physico-theology modernized. He was not impressed by their presumed geological knowledge or unwarranted self-confidence. The Dilema? Mincing no words, he charged that their knowledge of on national geology was obtained mostly by reading. They so presented facts as to betray at once their want of practical acquaintance with the subject, especially when they were so positive on points which all working geologists know to be quite problematical. He vehemently objected to The Dilema the practice of accusing geologists of atheism simply because they imputed the changes in the earth's condition to secondary causes.

He repudiated their extravagant theories on the grounds that they greatly distorted geological facts as well as Scripture. Hitchcock flatly rejected the view that primary rocks were created just as we find them, that secondary rocks were deposited between the creation and the deluge, and that tertiary and le parfum resume, diluvial strata were deposited by the deluge. None but a geologist can know what absurdities must be received, and what distortions made of facts, before such opinions can be embraced. They answered well enough for the times when physico-theology was in its glory; because then it was only a few generalities, and these very misty, that were known: and at this day they can be embraced, without a suspicion of their absurdity, by The Dilema, those who know but few of the details of thesis geology. Yet to The Dilema the geologist they appear a thousand times more extravagant and opposed to facts than any opinions that have been entertained by the cultivators of this science, and which Penn and Fairholme so violently oppose. [102]

Hitchcock recognized three major classes among recent front-rank geologists. The first denied any universal or general deluge, the second believed a general deluge had taken place before the creation of writing man and believed that the Mosaic deluge was probably a more restricted event, and the third believed that traces of several extensive deluges could be found and The Dilema, that the last of these might have been the Noachic deluge. As Alternative Fuel Essays? Hitchcock lumped the first two classes together because they agreed that no traces of the Noachian deluge had been found. He argued that their position did not necessarily conflict with revelation, because the Mosaic account did not require that traces of the deluge remain permanently. It would in fact be unreasonable to expect to find traces of the Mosaic deluge among the fossiliferous secondary or tertiary rocks. For one thing, a tumultuous deluge would have torn up the earth's surface, sweeping detritus elsewhere, but the fossiliferous rocks generally appear to have been deposited in quiet water and are arranged with great regularity. For another, a year-long flood could not have produced the immense numbers of fossils that had been found. Furthermore, most fossils were not identical to existing species of The Dilema animals and plants, and writing, organic remains become more and The Dilema, more unlike living beings as we go deeper in a pile of strata. If all animals except those spared on the ark had been killed and entombed by the agitated waters of a deluge, the existing races should be found as often at the bottom as at disposable the top of the fossiliferous rocks.

Hitchcock saw no escape from the force of the evidence unless one maintained that there was an entirely new creation of species that were mostly different from The Dilema, those destroyed by the deluge. Hitchcock went on to argue that deluge currents would have removed softer parts of the hydrogen fuel, surface, abraded the The Dilema, harder parts, and produced thin deposits. But as similar processes have been going on everywhere since the last deluge, it would probably be difficult after the lapse of centuries to distinguish diluvial from alluvial action. Traces of Noah's deluge might easily be obliterated. If so, however the fact argues nothing against the scriptural account. The absence of traces of the essays, biblical flood should cause no alarm, said Hitchcock, because geology furnished presumptive evidence in favor of the The Dilema, occurrence of such a deluge -- the essays smoking cessation, view of the third class of geologists. Hitchcock marshaled three lines of evidence to support the Bucklandian conclusion that the The Dilema, phenomena of diluvium prove a powerful rush of water from the north over the northern hemisphere. First, boulders and diluvial gravel are found almost uniformly in a southerly direction from the rocks from essay on national, which they have been detached. He described a host of occurrences of boulders and gravel throughout New England, the Great Lakes region, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Although not yet a convert to the ice age theory about to burst on the scientific world, Hitchcock granted that masses of ice might have participated in the diluvial transport by carrying larger boulders to The Dilema their present locations. After all, would not a rush of water over le parfum, our continent from the Arctic regions have swept along icebergs? But he maintained that the The Dilema, vast accumulations of diluvial sand and gravel bore the marks of the action of water. Portraying Essay? Hitchcock attributed the The Dilema, rounding of the boulders to the action of streams that existed prior to essays smoking the last cataclysm. The second line of evidence included scratches and grooves with a north-south orientation on bedrock as well as valleys with the same alignment. Hitchcock asserted that these features, with which he had become thoroughly acquainted in his study of New England's topography, had led most intelligent men to feel as if there could not be much doubt respecting the occurrence of a general deluge in the northern hemisphere in The Dilema, comparatively modern times. Hitchcock third line of evidence focused on the animal remains found in caverns and fissures. Relying heavily on Reliquiae Diluvianae , Hitchcock could not explain the portraying essay, phenomena in any other way, than by admitting the occurrence of such a catastrophe. But then he raised the big question. Was this alleged deluge identical with that described by The Dilema, Moses? He listed three major reasons not to equate the two floods.

First, prior discoveries in geology indicated that progressively older fossiliferous formations contain fossils that are progressively more unlike living organisms. Thus the great preponderance of extinct species among the fossils in the diluvium implied some degree of antiquity. Second, if the purpose of the biblical flood was to wipe out humanity, human remains should be found in flood deposits, but none had been. The only way to on national escape the force of that argument was to limit antediluvians to central Asia, a region whose diluvium has been as yet little explored. Third, the Mosaic deluge was too short to have produced the diluvial phenomena which geology exhibits. The Dilema? Hitchcock tentatively concluded that the arguments against the identity of the two deluges outweighed those in smoking cessation, favor.

Even so, he insisted again, no presumption is derived from geology against the truth of Moses' history of the deluge. To the contrary, there was a presumption in its favor even on the most unfavorable supposition. In the third part of his series, Hitchcock asked if the The Dilema, Mosaic account was true. After reviewing six major objections to the Mosaic chronology, including the argument from biogeography, he argued that the portraying a person essay, biblical account was true and that a localized deluge sufficiently satisfied the The Dilema, demands of the text. He maintained that appeals to miracle solved no problems associated with the portraying essay, flood, and The Dilema, commented that God generally didn't operate through miracle anyway. Hitchcock cautiously endorsed the le parfum, theory of French geologist Elie de Beaumont (1798-1874) that the The Dilema, sudden catastrophic uplift of mountain chains generated great waves that washed over it resume writing, the continents and that tremendous volcanic eruptions simultaneously triggered torrential rains. [103] If such conclusions were admitted, every reasonable man will allow, that the Mosaic account of the deluge stands forth fairly and The Dilema, fully vindicated from all collision with the facts of essay on national science. Realizing that some people wanted to claim more positively that geology strikingly confirms the Mosaic history, Hitchcock urged his readers to The Dilema consider the matter unsettled. In 1851 Hitchcock again tackled the flood in le parfum, Religion of Geology , a work that included a condensation of his three articles with slight shifts in emphasis and a conclusion in which he summarized arguments in favor of The Dilema a local flood. Only miracle could salvage universality, he argued, and the Bible didn't require miracles here. The problems with universality included the sources of essay on national building such a vast quantity of water, the difficulty of providing for the animals in the ark, the distribution of the animals and plants on the globe after the The Dilema, flood, and essay on national, the probability that vegetation would have been destroyed. The Dilema? No provision was made for seeds on it resume writing, the ark, and so presumably a new plant creation would have been required, a point to which the biblical text did not speak at all.

Moreover, the Bible often used universal language to describe a limited event. Assuming that human beings occupied only a limited portion of one continent, Hitchcock wondered why it would have been necessary to depopulate all other continents and islands, inhabited only by irresponsible animals, who had no connection with man? He called on Bishop Stillingfleet, Matthew Poole, and John Pye Smith for support. Abandoning Beaumont's uplift hypothesis, Hitchcock turned to Smith's subsidence idea that the Caspian Sea region had been flooded. He speculated that volcanic eruptions caused by vertical movements of the Indian Ocean seabed might have condensed enough water vapor to yield forty days of rain.

Hitchcock concluded that even though newer interpretations of the biblical narrative did not seem to The Dilema be the most natural meaning, yet if geological facts unequivocally require such an portraying a person essay, interpretation to harmonize the Bible with nature, then science must be allowed to modify our exegesis of Scripture. He suggested that such exegetical modifications would immediately disarm skepticism. And he insisted that the Bible still stood as an immovable rock amid the conflicting waves even though no trace of the deluge event remained in nature. Hitchcock had not completely swung over to Moses Stuart's point of view, but, despite his continued allegiance to The Dilema natural theology and harmonization, his catastrophism had become more placid and he was less concerned about le parfum, a literal match between Scripture and geological details. Surpassing both Smith and Hitchcock was Hugh Miller (1802-1856), a highly respected and devout Presbyterian who was gifted with an elegance, grace, wit, and clarity of written expression matched by The Dilema, few. In his capacity as editor of Witness , the voice of the evangelical wing of the Church of Scotland that ultimately formed the it resume writing, Free Church of Scotland during the The Dilema, Disruption of 1843, Miller gained a reputation as a zealous, eloquent, and trusted defender of Christian orthodoxy. Resume? [104] In earlier years, Miller had been a stonemason, and he honed his talents for geological observation during years in The Dilema, the quarries.

He became an amateur geologist who described primitive fossil fish and did pioneering studies of Britain's famous Old Red Sandstone. Miller was highly respected by leading scientists including Agassiz, who wrote a long commendatory introduction to a person essay the American edition of Miller's Footprints of the Creator . Miller was indeed an effective popularizer of geology. His reputation for theological soundness and his facility with the pen enabled him to reassure Christian believers that geology posed no threat to orthodoxy. Among the harmonizers, Hugh Miller may have been first among equals. [105] Like Hitchcock, Miller attributed the deluge traditions to a historical flood event that was burned into the consciousness of the race.

He did not believe that the universality of the traditions implied a geographically universal flood, however he maintained that it simply implied that all human beings had descended from those who went through the flood. Given Noah's isolation, there could have been no human testimony to determine whether the exterminating deluge was universal or partial, and Noah himself must have been ignorant of the extent of the deluge. God could have provided that information, but Miller noted that God's revelations usually effected exclusively moral purposes. More generally, Miller asserted that those who have perilously held that the Bible imparted definite physical facts, geographic, geologic, or astronomical along with moral facts ''have almost invariably found themselves involved in monstrous error. Because the extent of the deluge was a physical question that had no more moral implications than the shape or the age of the earth or the motions of the heavenly bodies, there was no need to reveal such information. Miller reminded his readers that the Bible used the common eastern device of metonymy (using the part to signify the whole), so it might well be that a major local inundation would be referred to as a universal flood.

He also reminded his readers that Poole and The Dilema, Stillingfleet had adopted a local flood on solely biblical grounds. In a clear appeal to extrabiblical data, Miller asserted that with respect to the flood as with respect to on national other biblical references to matters of physical science, the The Dilema, limiting, modifying, explaining facts and circumstances must be sought for in that outside region of secular research, historic and scientific. He believed it essential that the church stay as well acquainted with such research as the enemies of the faith did. From research much valuable biblical illustration had been derived. He warned against hydrogen as alternative essays ignorance of extrabiblical data, chided those who were content to solve scientific problems with the Bible alone, and showed that extrabiblical data had frequently corrected erroneous interpretations of the Bible. Plain men who set themselves to deduce from Scripture the figure of the planet had little doubt that the earth was flat until corrected by The Dilema, the geographer; plain men who set themselves to acquire from Scripture some notion of the fuel essays, planetary motions thought that the The Dilema, sun moved around an earth at rest until corrected by the astronomer; plain men who have sought to determine from essay, Scripture the age of the earth were confident that the earth was about The Dilema, six thousand years old until corrected by the geologist. In sum, plain men quite properly learned the way of salvation from the Bible, but every time they sought to portraying deduce from it what it was not intended to teach -- the truths of physical science -- they have fallen into extravagant error. [106] And if such error is The Dilema, casually or, worse, boldly or even belligerently endorsed, it must necessarily mar the overall credibility of the church. To account for the apparently universal biblical language, Miller asked his readers to think about the fuel essays, impressions an observer would receive during sudden subsidence of the land or uplift of the seabed. The Dilema? An observer on a boat would be unaware of the cause of what was happening. If subsidence occurred, an intelligent witness could testify to the persistent rise of the hydrogen as alternative, sea, accompanied mayhap by rain and tempest.

The witness would testify that it had been flood without ebb, as if the fountains of the great deep had been broken up for The Dilema many days. Smoking? But the observer would depart perilously from The Dilema, his position as a witness-bearer if he claimed, when his boat floated above a hill eight hundred feet in elevation that all hills with the same elevation everywhere were also covered. The observer could not legitimately infer a global deluge from disposable, a local depression. Miller joined Smith and Hitchcock in discounting the old diluvialism. The Dilema? He noted that for fifty years no one acquainted with paleontology or the true succession of the sedimentary formations had believed that any proof of a general deluge can be derived from the older geological systems. Geologists had looked for traces of the deluge in surficial deposits, but John Fleming had clarified the hydrogen fuel, difficulties of that endeavor, and many diluvialists had recanted. Miller also discounted Granville Penn's assertion that the flood had swept mammoth carcasses across the globe on the grounds that the mammoths were now known to The Dilema have been native to the areas in which their remains were found. The remains of many extinct species that were once thought to have been transported great distances before being deposited in hydrogen fuel essays, caves were likewise later determined to have been native to Europe. Miller concluded that the ark would have had to be five or six times larger than the generally accepted dimensions to accommodate all known animals. Not only had there been many discoveries of new species but naturalists had also come to recognize that many different kinds of animals that had formerly been classified as a single species were in fact distinct species.

There were, for example, far more species of sheep than previously recognized. Miller also reminded his readers that the Bible spoke of at least seven of each clean animal being on The Dilema, the ark, a fact overlooked in many of the as alternative fuel essays, older calculations. Miller laid out the biogeographical evidence in more detail than anyone else had before. The Dilema? The migration of the wild animals to the ark would have involved a miracle nowhere recorded, he maintained, and the burden of proof for such a miracle lay on it resume, those who asserted a universal deluge. Setting aside the issue of whether carnivores could have ceased being carnivorous during the flood time, Miller noted that of the The Dilema, creatures that live on vegetables, many are restricted in on national building, their food to single plants, which are themselves restricted to limited localities and remote regions of the globe.

Many insects had no wings and feeble locomotive powers, some gnats could live for The Dilema only a few hours or days after losing their wings, and other insects lived only upon le parfum, single plants. Getting all the The Dilema, animals to thesis the ark posed staggering difficulties, and getting them all back after the flood posed equally staggering difficulties. How would the The Dilema, insects have returned, for instance? As wingless grubs? Miller warned his opponents that the essay, expedient of having recourse to supposititious miracles in The Dilema, order to le parfum get over a difficulty insurmountable on The Dilema, every natural principle, is not of the nature of argument, but simply an evidence of the a person essay, want of it. Vastly expanded knowledge of the fossil record made the biogeographical argument far more persuasive than it had been only The Dilema a century earlier. Disposable? Animals in various parts of the world had been preceded by similar animals. The sloths of South America had been preceded by the extinct megatherium , known only from fossil remains. The kangaroos and wombats of Australia had been found as fossils only in that region. The Dilema? The birds of New Zealand were found as fossils only in New Zealand.

The problem of the migration of species to disposable rocket and from the The Dilema, ark could not be evaded by recourse to essays cessation an interchange of land and sea. Miller claimed with devastating logic spiced with biting humor that, on the supposition that a continuous tract of land stretched between South America and Asia, it is The Dilema, just possible that, during the hundred and rocket thesis, twenty years in which the ark was in building, a pair of sloths might have crept by inches across this continuous tract, from where the skeletons of the great megatheria are buried, to where the great vessel stood. But after the Flood had subsided, and the change in sea and land had taken place, there would remain for them no longer a roadway; and so, though their journey outwards might, in all save the impulse which led to The Dilema it, have been altogether a natural one, their voyage homewards could not be other than miraculous . One would need miracles for even less well-traveled species. How could Great Britain and Ireland have been restocked with their original inhabitants? While the red deer and the native ox might have swam across the Straits of Dover or the Irish Channel, such an effort would have been far beyond the power of such feeble natives of the resume, soil as the mole, the hedgehog, the shrew, the dormouse, and the field-vole. [107] But the biological distribution problem was even more serious.

Freshwater fish and mollusks would have been killed. Given the spawning habits of The Dilema salmon and trout, would not the flood have destroyed them? Invertebrates of the shores would be destroyed. Few of the more than 100,000 species of plants or their seeds could survive submersion in water for a year. Without another miracle, three quarters of the globe's vegetation would necessarily have perished. Miller professed puzzlement that learned, respectable theologians would accept any amount of unrecorded miracle rather than admit a partial deluge. Could they not see that the controversy was not between Moses and the naturalists but between the readings of different theologians?

Since all of natural science was arrayed against the theologians who held a global deluge, and inasmuch as there has been always such a marked economy shown in the exercise of miraculous powers, Miller concluded that theologians who held that the deluge was coextensive with its moral purpose were on the right track. His quarrel lay not with Moses or the truth of revelation. but with the opponents of Stillingfleet and of Poole. Chastising those who ignored geology as baseless speculation, Miller vigorously insisted that Christians had to pay attention to the discoveries of the science of geology. Individuals unacquainted with geology placed themselves in positions greatly more perilous than they seem to think, when they enter on writing, the field of argument with men who for many years have made it a subject of The Dilema special study. The cumulative evidence from geology against a universal flood was overwhelming. Where did Miller locate his partial flood? Borrowing from Lyell and Smith, he looked to the sunken basin of the Caspian and Aral Seas in central Asia.

He supposed that if a trench-like strip between the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Finland were depressed, it would so open up the fountains of the great deep as to lay under water an extensive and populous region. The vast plains around the Caspian, laden with salt and sea shells, show that the caspian Sea was at no distant period greatly more extensive than it is portraying a person, now. If the land began gradually to sink, Miller speculated, slowly and equably for The Dilema forty days together, at the rate of about four hundred feet per day, a rate less than twice the hydrogen essays, rate at which the tide rose in the Straits of The Dilema Magellan, such a rise would render itself only as a persistent inward flowing of the sea. One could further envision some volcanic outburst coincident with the a person, depression that would affect the atmosphere, causing heavy drenching rains to descend the whole time. Although the rains would add little to the volume of the flood, they would appear to an observer as one of the flood's main causes and would add to the terror by swelling the rivers. By the end of the fortieth day, an area of about two thousand miles each way would have sunk in its centre to the depth of sixteen thousand feet -- a depth sufficiently profound to bury the loftiest mountains of the district. As the contours of its hills and plains would remain as before, the doomed inhabitants would see but the water rising along the mountain sides, and one refuge after another swept away, till the last witness of the scene would have perished, and the last hill-top would have disappeared. [108] Summary of the The Dilema, Popularizers of it resume Geology.

The contemporary church would benefit immensely from The Dilema, a rediscovery of the compelling writing of Smith, Hitchcock, and Miller. The specific exegeses of Genesis espoused by these individuals may be open to criticism, but it is to their credit that they viewed the growing body of extrabiblical evidence devastatingly opposed to hydrogen fuel essays the traditional ideas of the deluge not as a threat to faith but as an The Dilema, occasion for reaching a better understanding of Genesis. Their considerable success in influencing late nineteenth-century conservative theology can probably best be attributed to the fact that they were very evidently committed to truth in both the realm of essay on national building science and the realm of The Dilema faith. On the one hand they had practical experience in geology and were familiar with the leading geological scholarship of the day, and on the other hand they had impeccable orthodox credentials and it resume writing, made good use of The Dilema formats that were readily accessible to theologians. Hitchcock reached the theologians through frequent contributions to theological journals, while Smith and Miller gave lectures and essays cessation, wrote popular books for an era that was fascinated by the issues of science and religion. Altogether they made it difficult for The Dilema their contemporaries to remain ignorant of the fundamentals of geology or to evade its implications for their reading of the biblical narrative. Modern Global Flood Geology To this day, flood catastrophism continues alive and well. Articles on the flood appear regularly in Creation Research Society Quarterly , for example. Hydrogen Fuel? For the most part the proposals lack empirical control and The Dilema, fail to engage or test the hypotheses of other flood geologists. Thesis? [109] Flood geology has proved to The Dilema be a marvelous illustration of the unlimited human capacity both to offer and embrace unchecked speculation.

One might expect that those who endorse a strict literalistic interpretation of the it resume writing, flood narrative (involving the complete destruction of human and animal life not preserved on The Dilema, the ark and the significant reordering of the earth's surface features) would be inclined simply to reject the writing, relevance of extrabiblical data, given the fact that such data seem clearly and overwhelmingly to deny that such a planet-altering flood ever took place. One might expect that such individuals would instead make appeals solely to the Word of God as the complete and The Dilema, final authority in all such matters and that they would denounce extrabiblical evidence as superfluous and misleading. And yet the proponents of flood geology have moved in the opposite essay on national building, direction, not only The Dilema showing a substantial interest in extrabiblical evidence but actually elevating it to the status of essay building apologetic proof. The issue for flood geologists is not whether extrabiblical evidence is relevant to biblical interpretation but rather how to interpret that evidence. Having already employed, without benefit of external evidence, a hermeneutic that demands a literal interpretation of the Bible, flood geologists are prepared to do anything but accept the mainstream scientific evidence that flatly refutes their claims that the earth is geologically young and that a global deluge deposited the fossiliferous strata. They have thus been forced either to appeal to miracles or to construct elaborate theories that manipulate the The Dilema, extrabiblical data to hydrogen as alternative fit their view of what must be true. The appeals to miracle have been made mostly in the context of arguments for a young earth (e.g., in claims that God created the world in The Dilema, such a way that it simply has the appearance of disposable rocket thesis great age). The flood theories themselves have been characterized more by speculation ungrounded in valid data or by the selective use and mishandling of the real facts of The Dilema science.

The typical twentieth-century flood geologist has paid great attention to the ark, to a person deluge traditions, and to stratigraphy and paleontology but has largely ignored the overwhelming contrary evidence from anthropology, comparative mythology, archeology, biogeography, petrology, and geochemistry. The Dilema? Among their ranks, only Whitcomb and Morris (authors of The Genesis Flood , 1961) have attempted to address the serious problems posed by hydrogen, biogeography and anthropology. The Dilema? The few flood geologists who have sought to deal with stratigraphic and paleontological evidence have on the whole been poorly informed in a person essay, those fields. Most have lacked substantial experience in field geology, have not been well acquainted with relevant scientific literature, and have generally tended to view geological data in The Dilema, a fragmented fashion, isolated from the larger context of regional geology. [110] Their work is broadly characterized by untested or untestable speculations that have a more solid grounding in the imagination than in essays smoking cessation, God's creation.

They assert confidently but without support that these speculations are the real facts of science, and then they propose that these real facts constitute an apologetic for the Bible literally interpreted. The Dilema? [111] In the process, they effectively divorce the Word of God from any connection to God's actual created handiwork. In recent decades, the flood geologists have devoted more energy than any other group to discussion of the biblical flood. Because most flood geologists have expressed a commitment to le parfum resume the infallibility of the Bible, God's revelation, and salvation through Christ alone, conservative twentieth-century evangelicals (who are already isolated from the broader academic community and a bit suspicious of higher intellectual endeavors) have generally been receptive to their pronouncements on scientific matters as well, especially since the alternatives have seemed implicitly to threaten their understanding of Scripture. And since mainstream evangelical scientists have done relatively little to educate the laity about the degree to which flood geologists have failed in The Dilema, both their understanding and their treatment of scientific data and technical literature, the latter have been able to exert an unwarranted force in evangelical thinking. This has established a vicious circle: in following the flood geologists and divorcing themselves from the mainstream scientific community, evangelicals have further cut themselves off from important sources of information that might have served to correct the errors. If flood geologists and essay building, evangelicals really want to be serious about heeding extrabiblical evidence, they will have to exercise more scientific competence, sophistication, and integrity than they have displayed thus far in the twentieth century. As we have seen, the idea of a universal deluge was the settled interpretation of the church for nearly seventeen centuries, but that changed as a body of compelling evidence undercutting that interpretation gradually accumulated. The cumulative pressure of general revelation can be ignored only so long.

Christians must always be ready to reexamine even settled interpretations when a wealth of The Dilema external data call these interpretations into question. God may be trying to disposable rocket tell us something! This case study of the flood suggests the need for more humility and less dogmatism in interpretation. The arrogant attitude displayed by some commentators who have lacked appropriate scientific knowledge, especially in this century, is appalling. Christians must also be cautious in using extrabiblical data for apologetic purposes, since their data may eventually be supplanted by better information that demands a different interpretation. The Dilema? There is danger in basing an apologetic for our interpretations on a presumed agreement of the Bible with science. The church is too often overly cautious and reactionary in le parfum resume, handling extrabiblical information and desperately needs to develop an attitude and a hermeneutic that eagerly embrace the discoveries that are made in God's world. In response to the growing body of evidence regarding the flood, many Christian scholars seem to have waited until the The Dilema, last possible moment to accept the idea of a local flood.

Indeed, a large segment of the evangelical church still seeks to support a belief in hydrogen as alternative essays, a global flood by resisting, distorting, or misinterpreting relevant extrabiblical evidence. It is, of course, easy to find fault in The Dilema, hindsight. And as the church has been singed from time to time by overeager scholars who have rushed to construct the most tenuous hypotheses on the slenderest threads of evidence, some caution is understandable. It is also understandable that long-held traditional ways of interpreting the Bible may easily become equated with what God is hydrogen as alternative essays, actually saying, and, of course, the church is reluctant to part with what it thinks God is The Dilema, saying! And yet many Christians have come to dread all scientific evaluations of the created world because they perceive in them a threat to the authority of the Bible and the certainty of personal salvation. A large segment of the evangelical church has unfortunately locked itself into a biblical hermeneutic that requires a global flood and a recent six-day creation and that prevents it from dealing responsibly with God's creative work. I submit that there is something inherently flawed in any hermeneutic that prevents us from reading God's handiwork properly and that repeatedly puts us at odds with the established conclusions of a scientific community that is composed not just of opponents of Christianity but also of confessing Christians. Some Christians delight in contrasting the infallible Word of God (that is to say, the Word of God infallibly interpreted by them) with the fallible ideas of rocket thesis sinful human beings and on that basis reject scientific conclusions they do not like. Scripture does oppose purely human philosophies, human pride, and human sin. But does the Bible oppose everything human? Science is a human endeavor that requires the The Dilema, input of fallible humans, but that hardly means that it is anti-Christian, and it certainly does not prevent Christians from accepting and using the results of science.

Even the most doctrinaire advocates of building a literal reading of Genesis 1-11 are selective in their objections to The Dilema the findings of the scientific community. How many of them deny that the earth orbits the sun rather than the disposable rocket, other way around, for example? How many object to the science that made high-tech electronics, manned missions to the moon, or modern drugs possible? When so many scientists of such a diverse array of The Dilema worldviews are able to achieve a virtual consensus regarding a given body of smoking evidence, we had better pay attention. When for The Dilema the past two centuries thousands of essays cessation geologists from around the The Dilema, world, including numerous Bible-believing Christians, insist from a lifetime of le parfum experience in The Dilema, looking at fossiliferous rocks that those rocks are extremely old and had nothing to do with a global deluge, then the church must listen.

Commentators who dismiss or disparage that body of geological knowledge solely on the grounds of their commitment to a principle of interpretation might do well to question their commitment to truth in a larger sense. Is it likely that they will arrive at a sound understanding of what God is saying in the biblical text if they reject a sound understanding of what God is essay on national, saying in the created order? The extrabiblical data pertaining to the flood have been pushing the evangelical church to develop a better approach to the flood story and indeed to all the early chapters of Genesis. Just what are those extrabiblical data? In summary, several centuries of effort to The Dilema locate physical remnants of the biblical deluge have completely failed. Any physical evidence that has been claimed to support a global flood has eventually been demonstrated to have a different explanation. The idea that the flood deposited the world's stratified rocks has been thoroughly discredited by resume, numerous lines of evidence. Many of the individual strata give evidence of having been deposited in such non-flood environments as rivers, beaches, deltas, lakes, glaciers, deserts, and shallow oceanic platforms.

Many strata, such as lake deposits and fossil reefs, contain abundant indicators of very slow deposition under environmentally sensitive conditions quite incompatible with a catastrophic deluge. Many strata are overlain by fossil soils and separated from higher strata by The Dilema, erosional breaks that could only have been produced over extensive lengths of time. Essays Smoking Cessation? The fossils themselves are arrayed in progressive order in The Dilema, the geologic column. It Resume Writing? Many of the organisms lived in environments utterly unlike flooded terrains. Radiometric dating of volcanic ash or lava flows interbedded with fossiliferous strata show that they are millions of years old. The Dilema? Some large masses of igneous rocks injected into the strata took hundreds of thousands of years to cool and crystallize. Many fossiliferous rocks have been metamorphosed, indicating extreme burial that could not possibly have occurred during a year-long deluge. All the evidence of the rocks tells us that they were not produced or arranged by a flood. Essay? The views of The Dilema earth history offered by Woodward, Catcott, G.M.

Price, Whitcomb and essay on national building, Morris, and John R. The Dilema? Rice are simply and a person essay, obviously incorrect. The evidence is also arrayed against views that confine the action of the flood to The Dilema the globe's surface features. Most of the gravels, sands, boulders, smoothed U-shaped valleys, and surface grooves and writing, scratches have been amply demonstrated to be the result of continental ice sheets rather than a flood. We now know that the frozen mammoths and their friends did not perish in a major catastrophe only a few thousand years ago involving a radical climatic change. These animals were well adapted to The Dilema life on it resume writing, the harsh tundra and died individually over a period of thousands of years in The Dilema, accidents that were catastrophic only to them.

The rubble-drift deposits of southern England and the Mediterranean (and scarcely evident at all in the Middle East) are most likely the result of rocket thesis downslope soil movements during the ice age. The views of the deluge propounded by Buckland, Sedgwick, Prestwich, and Wright are also incorrect. In addition to the wealth of geological evidence opposing the possibility of a global deluge, a variety of biogeographical evidence also counts conclusively against The Dilema such an resume, event. For one thing, there is no evidence whatsoever to indicate that human or animal populations were ever disrupted by a catastrophic global flood at any point in The Dilema, the past. Indeed, all the evidence indicates continuous occupation by these populations of points around the globe into writing, the exceedingly distant past.

Human beings have been in North America for at least twelve thousand years and in The Dilema, Australia for at least thirty or forty thousand years, long before the biblical deluge could have occurred by any consistent reading of the as alternative essays, textual evidence of the The Dilema, Bible. Furthermore, a literal reading of the flood narrative requires us to presume that representatives of disposable tens of thousands of different species left their natural habitats and restricted supplies of food, made their way from The Dilema, all the distant and it resume, isolated parts of the globe, crossing oceans, arctic wastes, and any number of hostile environments to arrive at the ark, that these vast numbers of The Dilema creatures somehow all boarded the craft, which (presumably) already held enough food to sustain them for essay building a year, and The Dilema, then after the le parfum, retreat of the The Dilema, floodwaters all made the journey back to their respective habitats to replenish the earth. Commentators who maintain that fossils were laid down in the flood must apparently also assume that representatives of all the species in the fossil record, including dozens of species of dinosaurs , were also aboard the building, ark. Is a literal reading of the flood narrative really so sacrosanct as to induce us to entertain such bizarre scenarios? Picture below right: a humorous look at The Dilema Noah's Ark -- Everything I need to as alternative essays know about life, I learned from Noah's Ark. The Dilema? (a) Don't miss the boat. (b) Remember that we are all in the same boat. (c) Plan ahead. It wasn't raining when Noah built the Ark. (d) Stay fit.

When you're 600 years old, someone may ask you to do something really big. (e) Don't listen to critics. Just get on with the job that needs to be done. (f) Build your future on high ground. (g) For safety's sake, travel in pairs. (h) Speed isn't always an advantage. The snails were on hydrogen fuel, board with the cheetahs. The Dilema? (i) When you're stressed, float a while. (j) Remember, the Ark was built by amateurs, the Titanic by essays, professionals. (k) No matter the The Dilema, storm, when you are with God, there's always a rainbow waiting. We need to find an interpretation of the on national building, text that does not commit us to a globe-covering catastrophe. Surely the text itself provides clues to The Dilema a better understanding. Doesn't the fact that the text suggests that Mesopotamian geography was not rearranged by the flood nor the topsoil displaced suggest that it was not a globally catastrophic event? Given the frequency with which the Bible uses universal language to describe local events of great significance such as the famine or the plagues in Egypt, is it unreasonable to suppose that the flood account uses hyperbolic language to describe an event that devastated or disrupted Mesopotamian civilization -- that is to say, the whole world of the Semites? I do not consider it a violation of the integrity of the biblical text to suppose that the biblical flood account uses a major Mesopotamian event in order to make vital theological points concerning human depravity, faith, and it resume, obedience and divine judgment, grace, and mercy. The evangelical church serves no good end by clinging to The Dilema failed interpretations of the Bible and refusing to explore new directions. Christian scholars have an a person, obligation to lead the way toward a renewed reverence for God's truth wherever it can be found.

Conservative scholars must develop a more aggressive attitude toward creation and encourage the church's youth to enter not only the pastorate, mission work, and theology but also such fields as the natural sciences, archeology, anthropology, and the social sciences. If anything, Christians should be preeminently motivated to The Dilema investigate the intricacies of God's created order, confident that a better grasp of both God's Word and it resume, God's works will be forthcoming. The Dilema? If the fruits of that improved understanding are to be communicated to the Christians in hydrogen fuel essays, the pew, their preachers will have to do the communicating. And this means that the The Dilema, theologians and commentators who educate the preachers have an obligation to consult more frequently with Christian scholars in other disciplines before making pronouncements on hydrogen, matters in those areas. What marvelous insights into Scripture might await the church if from now on the theologians and exegetes would work side by side with biologists, archeologists, anthropologists, geologists, linguists, astronomers, sociologists, and paleontologists! In a world of burgeoning knowledge about ancient literature, languages, civilizations, culture, and The Dilema, customs as well as about the workings of on national God's creation, biblical scholars must engage in The Dilema, dialogue with other representatives of the intellectual world they profess to want to influence with the good news -- the gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets in rocket thesis, the Holy Scriptures regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of The Dilema David, and who through the Spirit of holiness was declared with power to fuel be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord (Rom 1:2-4).

Davis A. Young , evangelical Christian geologist from The Dilema, Calvin College. [1] Henry, Commentary on the Holy Bible , vol 1 (1706; reprint, NY: Fleming H. Revell) [2] Wesley, Explanatory Notes upon the Old Testament , vol 1 (Bristol: William Pine, 1745). [3] See the journal entry for it resume writing January 1770 in The Works of John Wesley , vol 3 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1958), p. 385-386. [4] Gill, An Exposition of the Old Testament , vol 1 (London: W. The Dilema? H. A Person? Collingridge, 1852), p. 42-45. [6] Scott, The Holy Bible (NY: Collins Hanny, 1832). [7] For an extended review of the interpretations of selected texts relevant to the deluge that were adopted within the diluvialist tradition, see Davis A. Young, Scripture in the Hands of Geologists -- Part One, Westminster Theological Journal 49 (1987): 1-34. [8] Bellers, A Description of the Several Strata of Earth, Stone, Coal, Found in a Coal-Pit at The Dilema the West End of Dudley in Staffordshire, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 27 (1710): 541-544; Strachey, A Curious Description of the Strata Observ'd in the Coal-Mines of disposable rocket Mendip in Somersetshire, Philosophcal Transactions 30 (1719): 968-973; Strachey, An Account of the Strata in Coal-Mines, etc. Philosophical Transactions 33 (1725): 395-398; Michell, Conjectures concerning the Cause and Observations upon the Phaenomena of Earthquakes, Philosophical Transactions 51 (1760): 566-634. [9] E.g., James Kelly, An Account of the Strata Met with in Digging for Marle, and of Horns Found under Ground in Ireland, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1726): 122-123.

[10] Vallisnieri, Dei Corpi Marini che sui Monti si Trovano (Venice, 1721). For a useful summary of the historical development of The Dilema various classifications of mountains, see Frank Dawson Adams, The Birth and Development of the Geological Sciences (NY: Dover, 1954) and Rachel Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology; The Foundations of a Science, 1650-1830 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1987). [11] Moro, Dei Crostacei e Degli Altri Corpi Marini che si Trovano sui Monti Libn Due (Venice: Ceremia, 1740). [12] Arduino, Osservazione sulla Fisica Constituzione delle Alpi Venete (1759). [13] Pallas, Observations sur la Formation des Montagnes et les Changemenis arrives au Globe, pamculierement de L'Empire Russe (St. Petersburg, 1777). [14] Lehmann, Versuch einer Geschichte von Flotzgeburgen (Berlin, 1756). Fiichsel, Historia Terrae et Maris ex Historia Thuringiae per essay, Montium Descriptionen Erecta, Acta, Acad. Elect. Moguntinae zu Ehrfurt 2 (1762): 44-209. [15] On Werner, see Laudan, From Mineralogy to Geology ; Alexander M. Ospovat, The Distortion of Werner in Lyell's Principles of Geology, British Journal for the History of Science 9 (1976): 190-198; and Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982).

[16] Werner, ed. Brief Classification and Description of the Various Rocks , trans. Alexander Ospovat (NY Hafner Press, 1970). [17] Hutton, Theory of the Earth , vol 1 (Edinburgh: Creech, 1795). [18] De Maillet, Telliamed; or, Conversations between an Indian Philosopher and a French Missionary on the Diminution of the Sea , ed. Albert V. Carozzi (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1968). The Dilema? See also Albert V. Carozzi, De Maillet's Telliamed (1748): An Ultra-Neptunian Theory of the hydrogen essays, Earth, in The Dilema, Toward a History of Geology , ed. Cessation? Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969) p. 80-99. [19] Buffon's global cooling hypothesis can be found in The Natural History of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals, with the Theory of the Earth in The Dilema, General (London, 1976) and Les Epoques de la Nature (Paris: Editions du Museum, 1962).

[20] For a brief discussion of hydrogen fuel Linnaeus, see chap 1 of Janet Browne's Secular Ark (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). For detail on Linnaeus's life, see Tore Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and His Work (Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California, 1983). [21] Werner, Brief Classification and Description of the Various Rocks . [22] Sloane, An Account of The Dilema Elephants' Teeth and Bones Found Underground, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 35 (1728): 457-71; and Of Fossil Teeth and Bones of Elephants: Part the Second, Philosophical Transactions 35 (1728): 497-514. [23] E.g., Thartham News; or, A Brief Relation of Some Strange Bones There Lately Digged Up, in Some Grounds of essays cessation Mr. John Somner's in Canterbury, Philosophical Transactions 22 (1701): 882-893. [24] For more extended discussions of the early discoveries of vertebrate remains in surficial deposits and the ways in which they were interpreted, see chap 4 in John C. The Dilema? Greene's The Death of Adam (Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1959); chap 1-6 in Robert W. Howard's The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975); and Evelyn Stoles, The Six Days and the Deluge: Some Ideas on essay, Earth History in the Royal Society of London, 1660-1775, Earth Science Journal 3 (1969): 13-39. [25] Ides, Three Years Travels from Moscow Over-land to China (London: W. Freeman, 1706).

[26] I. P. The Dilema? Tolmachoff, The Carcasses of the Mammoth and Rhinoceros Found in le parfum resume, the Frozen Ground of Siberia, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society , 23 (1933): 23-24. [27] Frere, Account of Flint Weapons Discovered at Hoxne in Suffolk, Archaeologia 13 (1800): 204-5. For an The Dilema, exhaustive discussion of the early discoveries of human artifacts and their significance, see Donald K. Grayson, The Establishment of Human Antiquity (NY: Academic Press, 1983). [28] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy 6 (1797): 233-308. Essays Smoking? For a general look at neptunism and The Dilema, the flood, see Colin Russell, Noah and the Neptunists, Faith and Thought 100 (1972): 143-158. [29] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the disposable rocket, Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. 288. [30] Kirwan, On the Primitive State of the The Dilema, Globe and Its Subsequent Catastrophe, p. Disposable Thesis? 293. [31] Browne, Secular Ark , p. The Dilema? 16-23; and Frangsmyr, Linnaeus: The Man and His Work . [33] Zimmermann, Specimen Zoologiae Geographicae Quadrupedurn Domicilia et Migrationes Sitens (Leyden: T. Haak, 1777). For an analysis of Zirmmermann's work, see F. S. Bodenheimer, Zimmermann's Specimen Geographicae Quadrupedurn: A Remarkable Zoogeographical Publication at the End of the Eighteenth Century, Archives Internationale d'Historie des Sciences 8 (1955): 35, 1-57. [34] Playfair, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (Edinburgh: William Creech, 1802). For an hydrogen essays, overview of late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century geological thought, see Charles C. Gillispie, Genesis and Geology (NY: Harper, 1951).

[35] For a review of the transition from cosmogony to The Dilema geology, see Martin J. Disposable Rocket? S. Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of Earth History, in The Dilema, God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. Writing? 296-321. [36] De Saussure, Agenda; or, A Collection of Observations and Researches the Results of Which May Serve as the Foundation for a Theory of the Earth, Philosophical Magazine 3 (1799): 33-41, 147-156. De Saussure also discussed diluvial ideas in his massive books on the Alps. [37] See William Coleman, Georges Cuvier, Zoologist (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964), and Dorinda Outrarn, Georges Cuvier: Vocation, Science and Authority in Post-Revolutionary France (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984). [38] Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , ed. Claude C. Albritton Jr., trans. Robert Kerr (1878; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978). The Dilema? The essay was first published as a Discous Preliminaire to Cuvier's great work Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossdes and subsequently issued separately as . Diswus sur les Revolutions de la Surface du Globe. [39] Cuvier, Essay on the Theory of the Earth , p. 171-172.

[40] Greenough, A Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology (London: Strahan Spottiswoode, 1819). [41] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 151-154. [42] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 155. For Hall's ideas about the deluge, see James Hall, On the Revolutions of the Earth's Surface, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 7 (1815): 139-212. [43] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 186. [44] Greenough, A Critical Examination , p. 196. [45] Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and le parfum, the English School of Geology , 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. 60. [46] Buckland, Vindiciae Geologicae ; or, The Connexion of Geology with Religion Explained (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1820), p. The Dilema? 23-24. [47] Conybeare and Phillips, Outlines of Geology of England and portraying a person essay, Wales (London: William Phillips, 1822), p. xxvii. The introduction dealing with the relationship between geology and revealed religion was written specifically by The Dilema, Conybeare. [48] For a reproduction of Conybeare's caricature of Buckland entering Kirkdale cave and confronting a group of live hyenas, see Martin Rudwick, Encounters with Adam, or at Least the Hyaenas: Nineteenth-Century Visual Representations of the Deep Past, in History, Humanity, and portraying a person, Evolution , ed.

James R. Moore (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 245. [49] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae ; or, Observations on the Organic Remains Contained in Caves, Fissures, and Diluvial Gravel and on Other Geological Phenomena Attesting the Action of an Universal Deluge , ed. Claude C. Albritton Jr. (1823; reprint, NY: Arno Press, 1978), p. The Dilema? iii. [50] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. Le Parfum Resume? 223. [51] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. The Dilema? 1-2. [52] Buckland, Reliquiae Diluvianae , p. 51. [53] Buckland, Geology and writing, Mineralogy Considered with Reference to Natural Theology , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. 6 (London: William Pickering, 1837).

[54] Daubeny, On the Volcanoes of Auvergne, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 3 (1820): 361-62. The Dilema? For more on the geology of Auvergne, see Kenneth L. Taylor, Nicolas Desmarest and Geology in the Eighteenth Century, in Toward a History of Geology , ed. Cecil J. Schneer (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1969), p. 339-356. [55] On the early life of disposable rocket Silliman, see Chandos Michael Brown, Benjamin Silliman: A Life in the Young Republic (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989). See also John F. Fulton and Elizabeth H. The Dilema? Thomson, Benjamin Silliman, 1779-1864: Pathfinder in American Science (NY: H. Schuman, 1947). [56] Bakewell, Introduction to Geology , 2d ed. (based on rocket thesis, the fourth British edition), ed. Benjamin Silliman (New Haven: Hezekiah Howe, 1833); p. 404-413 and 458-466 in Silliman's addendum are specifically relevant to the issue of the The Dilema, deluge.

[57] Fleming, On the Revolutions Which Have Taken Place in the Animal Kingdom, as These Are Indicated by portraying essay, Geognosy, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 8 (1823): 110-122. See also Fleming's Remarks Illustrative of the Influence of Society on the Distribution of British Animals, Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 11 (1824): 287-305. [58] Fleming, The Geological Deluge. The Dilema? Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 14 (1826): 205-239. [59] See George P. Scrope, Memoir on the Geology of Central France, Including the Volcanic Formations of Auvergne, the Velay and the Vivarais (London, 1827), and Charles Lyell and Roderick I. Murchison, On the Excavation of Valleys, as Illustrated by the Volcanic Rocks of Central France, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 13 (1829): 15-48. For a valuable discussion of the rocket thesis, Auvergne volcanoes, see Martin J. S. Rudwick, Poulett Scrope on the Volcanoes of Auvergne: Lyellian Time and Political Economy, British Journal for the History of Science 7 (1974): 205-242.

[60] Sedgwick, Address to the Geological Society, Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 1 (1831): 313-314. The Dilema? Sedgwick's early ideas about the flood may be found in his essays On the Origin of Alluvial and Diluvial Formations, Annals of essay on national building Philosophy 9 (1825): 241-257, and The Dilema, On Diluvial Formations, Annals of essay on national Philosophy 10 (1826): 18-37. On Sedgwick's life, see Colin Speakman, Adam Sedgwick, Geologist and Dalesman: A Biography in The Dilema, Twelve Themes (Heathfield, UK: Broad Oak Press, 1982). [61] Greenough, Anniversary Address to the Geological Society,'' Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 2 (1838): 42-70. [62] Lyell, Principles of Geology , vol 3 (London: John Murray, 1833), p. 270-74. See also James R. Moore, Charles Lyell and le parfum, the Noachian Deluge, Evangelical Quarterly 45 (1973): 141-160. [63] The term Pleistocene epoch was used to refer to The Dilema the time when the le parfum, latest surficial deposits were deposited on top of older rocks.

[64] For more detailed discussion of the The Dilema, first proposals concerning the a person, effects of glaciation and an ice age, see Horace B. Woodward, The History of the Geological Society of The Dilema London (London: Geological Society, 1907), p. 136-145; Edward Lurie, Louis Agassiz: A Life in Science (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), p. 96-106; and Nicolaas Rupke, The Great Chain of History: William Buckland and the English School of Geology, 1814-1849 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983), p. 96-107. [65] For a good overview of the historical growth of the geological time scale, see William B. N. Berry, The Growth of a Prehistoric Time Scale (Palo Alto: Blackwell Scientific, 1987). [66] For detail on hydrogen as alternative fuel, Sedgwick and Murchison and The Dilema, the establishment of the Devonian time period, see Martin J. Hydrogen Essays? S. The Dilema? Rudwick, The Great Devonian Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1985). [67] For further detail on on national building, Sedgwick and Murchison and the establishment of the Cambrian and Silurian periods, see James A. Secord, Controversy in Victorian Geology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986). [68] On Murchison's contributions, see Robert A. Stafford, Scientist of The Dilema Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989). For additional insight into the career of Murchison and the development of both the Silurian and Ordovician periods, see David R. Oldroyd, The Highlands Controversy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). [69] For recent overviews of the geological time scale, see N. J. Snelling, The Chronology of the Geological Record (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1985), and le parfum, Walter B. The Dilema? Harland, A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1990). [70] Brief accounts of some of the major vertebrate discoveries can be found in Woodward's History of the Geological Society of le parfum London , p. 114-133; chap 1 of The Dilema Adrian J. Desmond's The Hot-Blooded Dinosaurs (NY: Warner Books, 1975); Rupke's Great Chain of History , p. 130-148; and J. B. Delair and W. A. S. Portraying Essay? Sarjeant's The Earliest Discoveries of Dinosaurs, Isis 66 (1975): 5-25. [71] See Adrian J. Desmond, Archetypes and Ancestors: Paleontology in Victorian London, 1850-1875 (Chicago: University of The Dilema Chicago Press, 1984). [72] Owen, quoted by Robert W. Howard in The Dawnseekers (NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975) p. 136.

[73] See Moore, Geologists and Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and on national building, Ronald L. Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 322-350; Milton Millhauser, The Scriptural Geologists: An Episode in the History of Opinion, Osiris 11 (1954): 65-86; and Rupke, The Great Chain of History , p. 42-50. [74] Among the writings of the scriptural geology school were George Young and J. Bird's Geological Survey of the Yorkshire Coast, Describing the The Dilema, Strata and Fossils Occuring between the Humber and the Tees, from the German Ocean to the Plain of York (Whitby, 1828); George Bugg's Scriptural Geology (London, 1826-1827); Sharon Turner's Sacred History of the le parfum resume, World, as Displayed in the Creation and Subsequent Events to The Dilema the Deluge (London, 1832); Joseph Sutcliffe's Short Introduction to the Study of Geology, Comprising a New Theory of the Elevation of the Mountains and the Stratification of the Earth, in Which the Mosaic Account of the it resume writing, Creation and the Deluge Is Vindicated (London, 1817); and Joseph Sutcliffe's Geology of the Avon (Bristol, 1822). [75] Granville Penn, A Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and The Dilema, Mosaical Geologies (London: Ogle, Duncan, 1822), p. 76-77. Penn gave evidence of a similar certainty about le parfum resume, God's strategy in The Dilema, creating and ordering the world in his earlier work A Christian's Survey of all the Primary Events and Periods of the World, from the resume, Commencement of The Dilema History to the Conclusion of Prophecy (London, 1811). [76] Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 336. [77] Penn, A Comparative Estimate , p. 341-46, 399-417.

[78] Kirby, On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of hydrogen as alternative essays God as Manifested in the Creation of Animals and in Their History, Habits, and Instinct , Bridgewater Treatise series, no. 7 (London: William Pickering, 1835). [79] Fairholme, New and Conclusive Physical Demonstrations Both of the The Dilema, Fact and Period of the portraying essay, Mosaic Deluge (London: James Ridgway, 1837), p. 408-410. [80] Fairholrne, New and Conclusive , p. 186-197, 228-237. [81] On Robinson, see Jerry Wayne Brown, The Rise of Biblical Criticism in America, 1800-1870: The New England Scholars (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969). [82] Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible (NY: G. The Dilema? Lane, 1846), p. 66-82. [83] Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the disposable rocket, Holy Bible: American Edition (Boston: Crocker Brewster, 1832), s.v. ark. [84] Hales, A New Analysis of Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy , vol 1, 2nd ed. The Dilema? (London: Rivington, 1830), p. 323. [85] See Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and New Testament (London: John Mason, 1838). [86] Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch (Edinburgh: T T Clark, 1850).

This volume is an English translation of the 1837 German edition. [87] Alexander, The Sermon Delivered at smoking cessation the Inauguration of the Rev. Archibald Alexander, D.D., as Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology, in the Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church, in the United States of America, to Which Are Added the The Dilema, Professor's Inaugural Address and the Charge to le parfum the Professor and Students [NY: J. Seymour, 1812). The Dilema? Most of the inaugural address has been reprinted in Mark Noll's book The Princeton Theology, 1812-1921 (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983). [88] Alexander, Theological Lectures: Nature and Evidence of on national building Truth, October 1812 (manuscript of a classroom lecture). The Dilema? The cited material appears in an. excerpt from the lecture in Noll's Princeton Theology , pp. 61-71.

On Alexander's life, see Lefferts A. Loetscher, Facing the Enlightenment and Pietism: Archibald Alexander and the Founding of Princeton Theological Seminary [Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1983). [89] Hales, A New Analysis of portraying Chronology and Geography, History, and Prophecy , p. 326. [90] Sutcliffe, Commentary on the Old and New Testament , pp. 20-21. [91] Havernick, An Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch , p. 113. [92] Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible , p. The Dilema? 74; Robinson, Calmet's Dictionary of the fuel essays, Holy Bible , s.v. Ararat; and The Dilema, Sutcliffe, Commentary on hydrogen as alternative fuel essays, the Old and New Testament , p. 21. [93] Rudwick, The Shape and Meaning of Earth History, in The Dilema, God and Nature , ed. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Resume? Numbers (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), p. 296-321.

[94] Moore, Geologists and The Dilema, Interpreters of Genesis in the Nineteenth Century, in God and Nature , p. 322-350. [95] On Smith's life see J. Essays Smoking? Medway, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of John Pye Smith (London, 1853). [96] Smith, On the Relation between the Holy Scriptures and Some Parts of Geological Science (NY: D. Appleton, 1840), p. 98. [97] Smith, On the Relation , p. 136-137. [98] Smith, On the The Dilema, Relation , p. 252-253. [99] For analyses of Hitchcock's thought, see Philip J. Lawrence, Edward Hitchcock: The Christian Geologist, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 116 (1972): 21-34; and Stanley M. Guralnick, Geology and Religion before Darwin: The Case of Edward Hitchcock, Theologian and portraying a person essay, Geologist, Isis 63 (1972): 529-543.

For Hitchcock's views on the flood, see Rodney Lee Stiling, The Diminishing Deluge: Noah's Flood in Nineteenth-Century American Thought (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991), p. 51-101. [100] Guralnick, Geology and Religion before Darwin, p. 530. [101] Hitchcock's initial contributions to his exchange with Stuart included the following articles: The Connection between Geology and Natural Religion, The Biblical Repository and The Dilema, Quarterly Observer 5 (1835): 113-138; The Connection between Geology and the Mosaic History of the Creation, The Biblical Repository 5 (1835): 439-451 and 6 (1835): 261-332; and Remarks on it resume, Professor Stuart's Examination of Gen. 1 in Reference to Geology, The Biblical Repository 7 (1836): 448-487. Stuart wrote Critical Examination of Some Passages in The Dilema, Gen. 1; with Remarks on essays, Difficulties That Attend Some of the Present Modes of Geological Reasoning, The Biblical Repository 6 (1836): 46-106. Hitchcock's later three-part treatment of the issues appeared under the title The Historical and Geological Deluges Compared, The American Biblical Repository 9 (1837): 78-139; 10 (1837): 328-374; 11 (1838): 1-27. [102] Hitchcock, The Historical and Geological Deluges Compared, p. 109.

[103] On Beaumont, see Mott T. Greene, Geology in the Nineteenth Century (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982). [104] On Miller, see Peter Bayne, The Life and Letters of The Dilema Hugh Miller (London: Strachan, 1871); Charles D. Waterston, Hugh Miller: The Cromarty Stonemason (Edinburgh: National Trust for essays cessation Scotland, 1966); and George Rosie, Hugh Miller -- Outrage and The Dilema, Order: A Biography and Selected Writings (Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1981). [105] Among his geological writings are The Old Red Sandstone ; or, New Walks in an Old Field (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858), Footprints of the Creator ; or, The Asterolepis of Stromness (NY Hurst, n.d.), and The Testimony of the it resume writing, Rocks (Boston: Gould Lincoln, 1858). [106] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. 305-306. [107] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , p. 347-348.

[108] Miller, The Testimony of the Rocks , pp. 356-359. [109] See, e.g., D. Russell Humphreys, Is the Earth's Core Water? Creation Research Society Quarterly 15 (1978): 141-147; David W. Unfred, Asteroidal Impacts and the Flood- Judgment, Creation Research Society Quarterly 21 (1984): 82-87; and Robert Kofahl, Could the Flood Waters Have Come from a Canopy or Extraterrestrial Source? Creation Research Society Quarterly 13 (1977): 202-206. [110] See Howard J. Van Till, Davis A. Young, and Clarence Menninga, Science Held Hostage: What's Wrong with Creation Science and Evolutionism (Downers Grove, Ill.: Intervarsity Press, 1988), especially chap 6, Making Mysteries out of Missing Rock, which explores the failures of flood geologists to deal adequately with regional geology and The Dilema, geological literature, using the portraying, Grand Canyon as a case study.

[111] See James R. Moore, Interpreting the New Creationism, Michigan Quarterly Review 22 (1983): 321-334.

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The Dilemma - Wikipedia

Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the The Dilema, growth of essay on national city life. In ancient times the The Dilema, people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government. Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to portraying a person essay, each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change.

There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of The Dilema urbanisation the villages still retain many of hydrogen as alternative their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in The Dilema the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the le parfum, king, the folkways and mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in The Dilema village life. The type of village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the individual is the status of essay his family.

There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to The Dilema, whether and whom the individual should marry for cessation the maintenance of family name. There is The Dilema lesser freedom in the selection of life partner. There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions.

Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. Essays. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of The Dilema aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary.

On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life. The anonymous character of the it resume, city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies. Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to The Dilema, those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated.

Even minor matters like disposal of hydrogen as alternative garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of The Dilema which are community housekeeping duties. A Person. Thus, in a city as opposed to The Dilema, the village the mores and portraying, folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of The Dilema control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members.

There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and on national, sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is The Dilema known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted.

From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by rocket mutual understanding. In city life, on The Dilema the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other.

Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to on national building, speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in The Dilema the third or fourth storey. There is an atmosphere of indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and writing, never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect.

Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village. Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and The Dilema, fewer excitements. Hydrogen As Alternative Essays. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages. Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’.

The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is The Dilema shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. Le Parfum. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of The Dilema production. Essay On National. In the village as a rule, only The Dilema a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. It Resume. The city, on the other hand, is the place for The Dilema all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the technician, the disposable rocket, artist, the The Dilema, banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others.

It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and on national, social. The residents of The Dilema a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations.

Since these various organisations have different customs and essays, procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The Dilema. The owner of resume special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. The individual is rated more in terms of The Dilema accomplishments than he is rated in le parfum the rural community.

The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and The Dilema, finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.

The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. Essays Cessation. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in The Dilema a kettle. Stability is the typical trait for disposable rocket thesis the one mobility is the The Dilema, typical trait for the other.” Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the writing, city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities.

In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of The Dilema space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of a person transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and The Dilema, so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the rocket, drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity.

As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life. He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. The Dilema. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious.

The city requires alertness and quicker responses to le parfum, changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. The Dilema. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of essay city life.” The city is The Dilema ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict.

Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to fuel, personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community.

The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the The Dilema, individual over against everyone else he is rocket thesis not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of The Dilema opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for essays smoking cessation employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life.

In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in The Dilema ways often unknown in the country; limited and le parfum resume, intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of The Dilema living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the disposable rocket, urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen.

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