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English critical essay past papers

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arbortext resume Ann Arbor, MI 48103. Consulting engagements in the following areas: Technical Training especially focusing on XML, XSLT/FO, DOM, Java, JSP, ASP, XHTML, PTC/Arbortext Editor (Epic) and Publishing Engine (E3) Technical Training in additional languages and critical essay papers, tools: Perl, CGI, Web Development tools, Visual Basic, DHTML, JScript/JavaScript, VBScript, and other related technologies Application Development using XML, Java, PTC/Arbortext Editor and Publishing Engine, JSP, ASP, CGI/perl, Visual Basic, MS-Access, and other technologies Technical Training in Microsoft Windows applications, including Access, Word, Excel Requirements Analysis and we do ourselves, System Design Online and classroom course development IBM and UNISYS Mainframe work considered, contact me with specifics. BACKGROUND AND STRENGTHS. 25+ years overall experience in IT Broad background ranging from desktop and client/server environments to english papers, IBM mainframe languages Specializing most recently in Java and cover letter, ACL development in XML-related technologies, particularly using PTC/Arbortext Editor and Publishing Engine tools Experience and thorough familiarity with XML, DOM, XSLT, XSLFO, SAX, Schema, DTD Technical Trainer - developed and delivered course materials in all of the various XML-related technologies, plus Java, perl, python, etc. Experienced on Windows, UNIX, UNISYS, IBM mainframe platforms Enjoy turning a user’s vision into a working application Enjoy seeing students and peers grasp new technologies, skills, and information Strong conceptual, analytical, and critical, design skills Self-motivated and resourceful. PROJECTS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS – Training. Developed, taught, and helped maintain material for a variety of topics related to the PTC/Arbortext product suite, including ACL, AOM (proprietary extensions to DOM), E3 (Publishing Engine), XUI, DataMerge, etc. (1996 – present).

Developed, maintained, and taught a variety of courses for letter Verhoef Information Packages as an independent trainer (1996 – present). Courses included: XML/XSL/DOM/SAX JavaScript perl HTML, CSS, DHTML, XHTML ColdFusion WWW for english essay past DP Professionals Taught various courses for Washtenaw Community College Extension (contnuing education) on courses including XML, Java, and what we do to truly understand, HTML/JavaScript (2000-present). English Critical! Currently teaching for and consulting with University of California at Berkeley Independent Learning on several Internet courses. Essay Friend! Courses include three Philosophy courses. Wrote course materials for Introduction to the Internet course, which ran during 1996 and 1997 (1994 – present). Speaker at CA-World Conferences 1998, 1999, 2000 on HTML and XML. Provided service to Computer Associates as an independent trainer on several of their products including CA-EASYTRIEVE PLUS, CA-SCHEDULER and CA-7/11 (1992 - 1996). Developed training materials and critical essay past, offered in-houses courses for a variety of products for Mervyn’s (1986 – 1992). PROJECTS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS – Application Development (PC and UNIX platform) From 1996 to present, developed custom applications for PTC/Arbortext customers using Arbortext ACL (Perl/C-like in-house language), Java, JSP, and addressing a cover letter, XSL.

Typical projects included requirements analysis, application design, code and test, implementation, and critical papers, documentation. Environments included Windows 95, 98, NT, XP and UNIX. Developed additional in-house applications using Perl, Java, WebSphere, ASP, DHTML, JavaScript, and other Web-related products. Le Parfum! Developed and documented procedures for essay past Visual Basic and MS-Windows interfaces for several PostalSoft (PC mailing list processing) software applications. Developed several PC-based applications including: dispatch software for RA trucking in Oakland, CA; diet questionnaire for Henry Ford Hospital Heart Smart program, and on best, various games distributed as freeware on the Internet.

Languages included C, Visual Basic, QBasic. English Essay Past! Developed several Web sites for descriptive essay on best friend individuals and proposals for businesses. These included use of HTML forms and interactive CGI/perl scripts (Perl on UNIX) including server-side includes. PROJECTS AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS – IBM mainframe platform (pre 1996) Planned and executed conversion from DCMS scheduling software to CA7/CA11. This project included review of several available mainframe scheduling packages, conversion of over 1000 scheduled events, installation and customization of the english past software, designed and production of all in-house training materials, as well as design, code and test, and installation of several automated interfaces to handle CICS on-line files, service user job requests, perform automated database maintenance, etc. Performed environmental setup and test execution for meditations on first philosophy integration tests involving production systems with over 300 components. This project included designing and writing a variety of utilities to convert JCL and data menders from production to test standards, extracting production data to test files using DB2 and english critical papers, SQL.

Additional languages used on this project included JCL, various IBM Utilities, SAS, REXX, CLIST, ISPF Panel and meditations on first philosophy essay, EDIT language, COBOL, and DB2 utilities including SQL, QMF, SPUFI, and UNLOAD-PLUS. Planned and executed all aspects of the conversion of english essay past production applications for descartes philosophy essay Bank of the english past West from mainframe processing by a service provider to resume, an in-house computer center. This project included all aspects of project management, evaluation of the new environment and optimization of workflows to best fit that environment, design and development of several utilities to parse and rewrite all JCL. Also, designed and critical essay past, wrote utilities to automate DSN conversion and file shipping from site to site as well as proposed technical and on first, procedural improvements in the new environment. Coordinated the deinstallation of nine production applications for a large manufacturing and english, retail company. This included cross-referencing all possible users of the JCL, programs, databases, FOCUS EXECs, etc.

Languages and techonologies: EMPLOYMENT HISTORY (Chronological Resume available on request)

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Sqa intermediate 2 english critical …

Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development. Your resume is an english critical essay past, essential part of your job search toolkit and its importance should not be underestimated. You will need one for whatever kind of job you are looking for. If written properly, it's the what to truly ourselves essay, document that will move you to a job interview and potential employment. Do not approach the critical, task of writing the resume lightly.

By now you should have taken the time to identify your hard and thesis statement by sylvia plath, soft skills. If you cannot identify at least 20 job-related skills at english past, this point, your first task is to revisit the Identifying Your Skills chapter and create your list. Be aware that your resume is never really done. You have to customize it to match the qualifications and skills sought by employers for specific jobs. Job seekers start out at different points when preparing resumes. Some will have a resume a few months or a few years old. Others may have been employed for resume, several years or decades and don't have a current resume, or may have one saved somewhere in an old computer or in a file in essay papers, their home office. Regardless of where you’re starting in writing a resume you first have to organize and store lots of different types of job-related information in an electronic file. 1. Employment History — List all your jobs for the past 10 to 15 years in a reverse chronological order, with dates of employment and various positions held within various companies.

If you have held a lot of rene descartes on first philosophy, jobs or have had a varied job career, list the last three or four jobs and skip your earlier career, or shorten it into a single line: “U.S. Bank, Minneapolis, MN, teller, 2005-2010.” 2. Skills — Take the list of the 20 job-related skills you identified using the information in Chapter 3. Future employers want to know what skills you displayed in your work and whether those skills saved money, improved efficiency, led to english past papers, a more motivated workforce, or whatever. Ask yourself these questions: What skills did I use in descriptive essay friend, my previous positions? Are they important to the employers or jobs that I am considering? 3. Accomplishments/Achievements — Penelope Trunk, the english past, job search author, encourages you to look at your past jobs and “list achievements, not job duties … anyone can do a job, but achievements show you did the job well.” A case in point is when a job seeker writes: “Managed two people and cover letter spanish, created a tracking system for marketing.” Instead, consider this: “Managed the english essay past, team that built a tracking system to decrease marketing costs 10 percent.” The second example obviously sounds more impressive. Using accomplishment statements helps the hiring authority understand how you made a positive impact on business operations or outcomes. Mark Zappa, who works at the Minnesota WorkForce Center, points out that an accomplishment can be an actual testimonial from a supervisor — a nice break from the usual standard resume information.

An accomplishment statement might read: “Identified learning resources and developed productive partnerships within a closed, individual-driven department.” 4. Job Search Goals — Establish clear objectives for your search. What kind of company do you want to le parfum, work for? What size? In what field?

What sorts of jobs are you seeking? After you complete these steps, you’ll have a list of your previous job titles, dates of employment, the employer’s name and address and a list of at least 20 of your job-related hard and soft skills. A good resume has critical content elements that must be complete and compelling. There are a few general guidelines for showcasing your experience and skills on critical essay past papers, just one or two pages of text. Le Parfum Resume. Resumes are fairly predictable in features and english essay papers, information, but some choices have to be made. They are not typically documents used to show off your innovative design or creative writing skills.

The one exception to thesis by sylvia plath, this rule might be if you're pursuing work in critical essay past papers, a creative field. Yet even then these resumes must remain cautiously creative. Now we're going to deconstruct a resume, section by section, and even line by line. We'll start at statement by sylvia, the top, end at the bottom. Don't worry about the final look or format of your resume just yet. Start with the core content. After you have this core information, you can fine tune or customize each resume for each job opening. This is called targeting your resume. There are two types of fonts, serif and sans serif.

Serif fonts have tails or feet and sans serif fonts do not. Use a serif font for english critical papers, your name because that style often looks more prominent. For the rest of your resume, pick a font that's easy to read in addressing a cover letter, print and online. Resumes that use a sans serif font may scan better and subsequently look better when the english past papers, employer retrieves them from their applicant tracking system database. Put your full first and rene on first philosophy, last names on its own line at the top of the page. Choose your favorite professional-looking font.

For ideas, look at the list to english papers, your left of common, readable fonts that work well for resumes. Your name can be in a different font than the rene meditations on first philosophy, body of the english critical past papers, resume. Type your name in bold or CAPITAL LETTERS to make it stand out, and addressing a cover letter to unknown, make it larger point type than the body of the resume. Your address should not contain abbreviations. Include all 10 digits of your landline phone or mobile number. It should be a number where you can be reached at all times. Use a professional personal email address. Some job seekers have an email address that is solely used for their job search. English Critical Essay Past Papers. If applicable, also include your LinkedIn profile address.

You may hyperlink these links to make it easy for rene philosophy, an employer to english critical past, contact you by email. 1443 HireMe Lane. Employmentville, Minnesota 55555. Include an objective when you are pursuing a specific job goal and when you know the exact title of the cover, position you are applying for. The objective statement helps target your resume. When applying for a specific job, use the title in english critical essay papers, your objective and even add the rene descartes meditations essay, name of the company as in the following example: Objective: Landscape Design Specialist at Creative Environments Inc. Some online job application forms and job posting websites require an objective statement.

Here are a few examples of objective statements that indicate precisely what kind of position the job seeker wants. Customer service representative Manufacturing sales representative Office manager Senior admissions and enrollment officer. Your resume should include an effective Summary Section that briefly highlights your recent work experience (including industries you've worked in), applicable certifications, achievements and skills that best match the position for critical essay, which you are applying. That means you'll have a customized Summary Section for by sylvia plath, each job you apply for. The summary should be slightly longer than the objective statement, containing two to four lines or a series of phrases and critical past papers, can be used instead or combined with an objective statement. Name this section Professional Summary, Professional Profile, Summary of Qualification, Career Summary or Career Profile. Below are two examples: Objective: Landscape Architect. Summary: Certified and innovative Landscape Architect with extensive knowledge in construction, engineering and le parfum, design. Recognized for creatively solving design and sustainability challenges, reducing project management expenses by 25 percent and having a positive, customer-focused attitude. Certified Nursing Assistant with over two years long-term care experience caring for elderly and vulnerable adults.

Excellent client care; works well with bedridden, physically-challenged and memory-impaired residents. Commended for english essay papers, superior safety and attendance record. Friendly, caring and compassionate, with excellent interpersonal communication skills. Flexible: available days, evenings, weekends and holidays. What Must Understand. Maintains confidential information. Include a skills section to quickly and critical essay past papers, effectively communicate your experience and statement by sylvia plath, make yourself stand out from other applicants. Match your skills (used in volunteer and paid positions) from the list you have already created with the requirements and preferences included in english critical, the job posting. Formats for skill lists include: 1. A Cover Letter Recipient. Bullet Point List with Results.

Format your skill section as a list of bullet points- that is three lines to five lines long. Limit each entry to two lines. Choose action verbs that demonstrate responsibility. For example, managed, coordinated or designed. Vary the action verbs that you choose. This helps make your abilities sound more diverse and critical, adds depth to letter, your resume. Use the list of action verbs provided in this chapter and in critical essay past, the job opening itself for ideas.

Review your list of accomplishment statements to quantify your results. 2. Descriptive On Best. Grouping Skills by Topic. Consider grouping your skills as job-specific qualifications below headlines such as Accounting Qualifications, Consulting Qualifications or Teaching Qualifications. Relate your skills and work within that profession, with perhaps a general skill or two. This format is often used to list your competency using computers. Employers presume that applicants are proficient with word processing, spreadsheet usage and email applications, but if these skills are listed in the job opening, include them on your resume, Consider listing specific names of english essay papers, business applications (such as Excel 2010, SharePoint 2013 or Salesforce) or industry specific skills (such as CNC machine tools or types of CAD software). Use a bulleted list, three to five lines long. List your most recent employment first. A general standard is to cover, chronologically list in reverse order the english past, last three to four jobs or those you have had over the past 10 years.

Name the employer, location, your official position and the years you worked there. If you have worked for only one employer in the last decade or more, show your recent promotions. If your job title did not change in the last decade you can still show job progression by showcasing how you took on more complex job tasks and increased responsibilities. How much information should you give about your past jobs? Focus on what you did and your accomplishments in various positions. Make your employment history sound more impactful by using action words such as maintained, led, worked, performed, developed, directed, established, functioned, monitored and trained. Use bullet points and resume, make your sentences one line. English Essay Past Papers. Sentence fragments like specialized in training employees to use proprietary software that resulted in a 15 percent reduction in data entry errors work fine.

List no more than four to six bullet points in describing your last job. Then use two to three points for subsequent positions. Although contact information is typically given on an application or reference sheet, many resumes still list the employer name, city and state. Other job seekers might limit this information to keep the resume focused on skills, accomplishments and qualifications that best match the job opening. The choice is yours.

There is for metaphors by sylvia plath, no single standard that fits all situations. If you are a first-time job seeker or re-entering the workforce after a gap in employment, use this section to emphasize professional capabilities, but still include some past employment or volunteer history. Job seekers with established job search goals often seek out a volunteer opportunity that is english essay past papers, a close match to the paid job that they want. If more of your skills and experience come from employment, list employment first and thesis plath, education last. List education first if you are a student, recent graduate, or pursuing a career with educational emphasis. Include the name of the english essay past, institution, location (city and addressing to unknown recipient, state), graduation date or projected graduation date, degree(s) earned, field of english critical essay, study and GPA (if over 3.0).

If you haven't been to descartes philosophy, school in english critical past, years, you can list education after your professional experience and skip the year you graduated to avoid potential age discrimination. You also can list relevant training or certifications that might impress employers or relate to the position you're applying for. For job seekers who did not graduate from rene meditations on first, undergraduate or graduate programs, a simple disclosure is best: Attended the University of english critical past papers, Minnesota, 2010-2013. It shows you have ambition even though you didn't graduate. If you never went to college or finished high school you can list yourself as a high school graduate as long as you have a GED or another type of high school equivalency certificate. List the name of the school, school district or state where you earned the GED or high school equivalency certificate.

Do not include an education section if you did not finish high school and had no formal training either in school or from an employer. Individuals currently taking classes or pursuing a degree related to their job goal should include that information. List the skills acquired, academic accomplishments and the projected date of completion. List organizational memberships related to your job goal. Avoid using non-employer-related or controversial organizations. Spanish. Don't mention specific religious or political affiliations or other potentially controversial groups unless they directly relate to the job you want. Include military experience on your resume as part of your work history. If you are targeting a job within the defense industry, feel free to use military jargon. The defense industry likes candidates who understand the english critical essay past, lingo. If you are targeting a job outside of the defense arena, you will need to civilianize your military language to show that your skills and what must ourselves essay, experience match the employer's needs.

See the essay, Transferring Military Skills document for a list of cover, military-to-civilian job skills. Volunteer experience can fill in any gaps in employment. It can demonstrate responsibility and help highlight skills that may not have been used in your work career. Served as an critical, officer of the PTA? Or a coach at your children's school? That shows leadership, even if your career may not have offered you any opportunities in leadership roles. Include hobbies and personal interests if they're employment-related, not controversial, and resume, show skills and experience. Do not include your references or the phrase references available on request on the actual resume. It is assumed by employers that you will provide this information if requested. Past. Once an employer asks for your references, provide the names and contact information of three to five people who can speak favorably about your attributes. Let the employer know of any awards or recognition you have received (employee of the month, industry awards, and recipient, so forth).

Those are accomplishments worthy of critical essay, mention. Targeted resumes are a necessity for most job openings. A Cover Letter To Unknown. Why? Busy employers and networking contacts plus improved technology have changed the way resumes are written and used in a job search. Critical Essay Past. Your resume has to communicate a lot of information in the 10-second glance it gets from descriptive friend, a networking contact or a prospective employer. If the past papers, employer uses an what, applicant tracking system (ATS) it first has to successfully pass electronic screening and resume ranking before it is read by the hiring authority. Your resume might be in for a rocky trip before you are selected for critical essay papers, an interview for a job opening. It takes more time to write a targeted resume that includes important keywords, but it is well worth the le parfum resume, effort. Use keywords such as industry jargon and words commonly found in titles of jobs for positions you are applying for. The keywords in english critical past, your targeted resume will help you stand out in an ATS because it's set up to rene on first essay, identify specific skills of applicants. Critical Essay Past Papers. These software programs help an employer identify individuals with certain traits and backgrounds that fit job openings.

Many of these systems accept more resume copy than you typically can fit on a one- or two-page resume. Use this opportunity to include more of your relevant experience and skills. Avoid putting keywords in white around the margins of your resume because eventually, your ATS resume will be read by descriptive essay, hiring decision makers. An ATS allows companies to avoid having to look at english papers, hundreds of resumes, many from people poorly qualified. If the targeted position is unavailable, your resume may be stored in another section of the addressing recipient, ATS database called a Talent Management System. Highlight your desire for a specific job and to be considered for critical essay past, other related openings in your cover letter. That gives your resume a chance to le parfum resume, be found in the Talent Management System later and essay papers, indicates the flexibility many employers seek.

You have all the core content to build an attractive and multipurpose targeted resume. Use any one of a number of thesis for metaphors plath, resume templates to create a visually pleasing and easy to read resume document. After you have completed the resume, you will have the english critical past, flexibility to distribute your resume in plain text, save it as a PDF, send it as an email attachment, cut and paste sections of it for online job applications, or print it for a cover letter, networking meetings, postal-mail job applications or an interview. Your targeted resume with keywords should be used when you have a networking contact meeting or cold-call prospective employers. If you have worked in an industry, your resume will showcase your knowledge of that industry's keywords. Essay. If you are changing careers, looking for an entry-level job or re-entering the workforce, you'll need to research a specific employer's or an industry's needs. Sources of information include company websites, position descriptions, employer profiles on social media sites, industry publications, other networking contacts and informational interviews. Use this information to rene meditations philosophy essay, adjust your skills and essay papers, experience content to fall within the needs of the employer or industry.

Your targeted resume will quickly and spanish, effectively communicate your experience, skills and english essay past, job search goals to a networking contact or prospective employer. Giving networking contacts your resume containing targeted content helps your contacts better understand what they can do for you. These contacts are pipelines to descriptive essay, what is called a warm referral - that personal connection to another contact or an employer who has a job opening. Networking is strongly advocated by job search experts because personal contact has a history of leading to a new job. When applying for a job, you will fine tune your targeted resume to mirror the critical essay past, requirements of that specific job opening. Must Ourselves Essay. Your content must include not only your relevant experience and skills that the employer wants, but the english essay, keywords used in descriptive essay, the job opening announcement. Your job is to english, show that your qualifications and experience match what the must understand essay, employer is seeking because employers look for resumes where the applicant has all (or nearly all) of the qualifications and experience that are in the job posting.

Start by carefully reading the job posting. Job postings tend to follow a pattern. Employers usually summarize the job responsibilities followed by the required and preferred qualifications for papers, all applicants. Cover Letter Spanish. Look for past papers, the most important requirements at the top of the job posting and the least important at the bottom. Targeted resumes that use the same words that the employer used to summarize the resume, job responsibilities, qualifications and skills have a better chance of moving forward through an ATS or a manual candidate screening process. Resumes should be sent to english critical, a specific person. Use their name.

Avoid sending the resume to a job title such as Production Manager. It will take extra effort, but do your research and friend, find out the essay past papers, name and title of the appropriate person to whom your resume should be sent. If asked, send your resume to human resources. Then also send a resume to the person in charge of the le parfum, department in which you want to work. Most of the essay papers, time, human resources do the screening, but it's the essay, department manager who is the final hiring authority. When mailing your resume, always send it with a cover letter. Mass-mailing your resume to employers does not work.

The statistics are that for every 1,000 resumes you send to employers you can expect to english critical, get two interviews. Target a smaller pool of employers instead of haphazardly mass mailing to letter, a random list of names. Follow up your resume submissions with a phone call to the employer. English. Be courteous, professional and what must we do to truly understand ourselves, persistent about critical selling your qualifications. Be sure to ask for an interview. When directly contacting employers, always have a copy of your resume available and take the recipient, initiative to essay, offer it to them. Always bring extra copies of your resume when directly contacting employers. When applying for a job with a paper employment application, attaching your resume is a good idea. The resume will add impact and should complement the application. If you're asked to rene descartes meditations philosophy, fill out an application, never write on it See resume. English Critical Essay. Filling out the entire application is still required.

Give a copy of your resume to your references. It provides them with information about you and will help them to resume, talk to an employer about your qualifications. Hand or send emailed copies of your resume to all networking contacts. It's an excellent ice breaker to use the resume as a center for critical past papers, discussing your qualifications. Le Parfum. Ask your contacts to papers, critique your resume. Finally, follow-up, follow-up, follow-up. Descriptive Essay Friend. It's no use mailing resumes if you don't take the time to english critical essay past, try to to truly, directly speak to english papers, companies. The true test of an effective resume is that you're offered interviews. If you aren't getting responses or interviews from your resume, you may want to re-evaluate it.

View the samples/templates below to create your own resume: Use our checklist to make sure you've covered everything.

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Sqa intermediate 1 english critical …

Alles andere als eine Koloratur-Nachtigall. English Critical Past Papers. D iese Traviata wird spalten, ganz sicher. Das wei? niemand besser als Natalie Dessay selbst, die sich als lupenreiner Koloratursopran jetzt eine Rolle zuruckerobert hat, die langst eine Domane der lyrisch-dramatischen Soprane geworden ist. Cover Spanish. Die sicherlich erregte Diskussion wird spatestens dann anheben, wenn die so starrsinnige wie faszinierende Franzosin diese, ihre Violetta Valery auch in english essay past papers Europa singen wird: im Sommer 2011 in what must we do to truly ourselves Aix-en-Provence und dann in essay Wien, wohin die Produktion wandert; auch in rene essay Japan und an past papers, der Metropolitan Opera ist sie bereits verpflicht. A Cover Letter. Doch geboren hat sie die schwere Partie des leichten Madchens jetzt weit weg, an english critical papers, der herrlich atmospharischen Santa Fe Opera, Amerikas schonstem Opernsommerfestival in descriptive on best New Mexiko. Essay Past. Weit weg vom internationalen Opernzirkus, aber doch unter Beachtung. Mit ihrem Mann, dem beweglich-einpragsamen Bariton Laurent Naouri, der ebenfalls als Vater Germont debutierte, und mit dem jungen Albaner Saimir Pirgu, der einen kraftvollen und doch verletzlichen, immer ein wenig vor diesem kauflichen Kobold zuruckschreckenden Alfredo gab. What We Do Ourselves Essay. Doch von der ersten Verdi-Sekunde, die der auch spater sich nie vordrangelnde, straff rhythmische und pikant tanzerische, aber mit wenig Paris-Morbidezza aufwartende Frederic Chaslin dirigiert, ist klar: Diese Traviata, erarbeitet mit ihrem Lieblingsregisseur Laurent Pelly, ist wirklich vom ublichen Weg abgekommen. Kaum ist ihr eigener Beerdigungszug uber das Durcheinander schwarzer Kuben hinweg geschritten, das Chantal Thomas in english critical papers Anspielung an addressing a cover recipient, das Graberlabyrinth des Friedhofs Pere Lachaise vor den offenen, mit letzter Tagesblaue aufwartenden Abendhimmel uber den Jemez-Bergen gestellt hat, hupft Violetta als Ruckblende ihrer selbst aus der Grube. English Critical Essay Past. Und sofort gehort ihr die Buhne.

Also fuchsienrosagrelle Puderquaste zwischen sich bauschenden Volants, mit viel Bein in resume hohen Schnurstiefeln, die kurzen Haare pumucklrot, die Hande ekstatisch lebensgierig gen Himmel geworfen. Ein erotischer Wirbelwind, ein sinnlicher Brummkreisel. Essay Papers. Eine Figur von gestern zwar und doch in rene descartes philosophy essay jeder Bewegung, in critical essay past der unverblumten Suche nach erotischer Erfullung eine Frau von heute. Spanish. Freilich keine gro?e Kurtisane, die sich mit noch gro?erem Ausschnitt und Edelcremesopran als ehrbare Dirne und Primadonna geriert, wie es etwa Angela Gheorghiu und Rene Fleming kultivieren - und so die Figur im Goldrahmen entrucken. Die Dessay ist in critical past jeder Faser und Phrase mehr eine Kabarettfigur, grotesk, uberspannt und doch anruhrend; die nach Tingeltangel und Cafe chantant riecht, billig und berechnend, die nicht nur wegen der Haarfarbe der oft von Toulouse-Lautrec gemalten Diseuse Yvette Guilbert nachempfunden scheint.

So singt sie auch. Thesis For Metaphors. Exaltiert, ohne Netz, gurrend und knurrend, nicht immer schon, die nicht stetig leicht erreichten Stratospharentone sind inzwischen sehr monochrom geworden. English Critical Essay Past. Die Dessay stirbt kaum in thesis statement by sylvia plath Schonheit, zelebriert nicht ihr Verloschen, sie verzehrt sich bewusst, greift gierig und kindhaft nach dem Leben und den Mannern. Past. Opfert sich aber auch auf, genie?t ihr kleines Gluck auf dem Land, wenn die Graber nur unvollkommen mit Rasen bedeckt sind, sie in Mannerhemd und Hosen einmal keine Rolle spielen, sich nicht verstellen muss. Rene Descartes On First Essay. So ist diese Traviata zur mondanen Schwester der knabenhaft rustikalen Regimentstochter geworden, als die Natalie Dessay, ebenfalls unter Pelly, in english past den letzten Monaten in descriptive friend London, Wien und New York triumphal abraumte. Selten hat man eine Sangerin offentlicher mit dem altmodischen Image der Koloraturnachtigall kampfen sehen. Und selten auch hat gerade an critical past, den Belcantotempeln der Welt eine weniger orthodoxe Vokalartistin in le parfum eben diesem Fach reussiert - weil sie immer auch Schauspielerin ist, dramatisch sein will. Critical Essay Papers. Die 1965 in Lyon geborene, in letter spanish Bordeaux aufgewachsene Dessay, die eher zufallig in english critical essay past eine Gesangskarriere rutschte, weil es zur Ballerina nicht langte, wirkt oft wie im falschen Kleid, wie ein Mann, der als Frau geboren wurde. Rene Descartes Meditations Philosophy. Sie wehrt sich und straubt sich, verwandelt so Unzufriedenheit in critical papers kunstlerische Klasse. To Unknown Recipient. Diejenigen, die bei einer Sangerin nur den schonen Ton suchen, werden freilich nicht bedient.

Nur in english critical essay past ganz jungen Jahren, als sie 1992 von Paris und Wien aus mit unmittelbarem Erfolg startete, besa? die Stimme wirklichen Liebreiz und zarte Verfuhrungssu?e; doch selbst als Offenbachs Puppe Olympia wollte da eine schon raus aus ihrem Vokalautomatengefangnis, so wie auch ihre Konigin der Nacht gefahrlich scharf funkelte und knisterte, ihre Zerbinetta nicht trillernde Commedia dell'arte-Porzellanpuppe war, sondern eine herausfordernd sexualisierte Popsirene. Le Parfum Resume. Mit dem fur franzosische Koloratursopranistinnen typischen Zitronenspritzer im Timbre wurden selbst so scheinbar flache Singdrosseln wie Lakme, Manon und die Hamlet-Orphelie zu schneidend schmerzenden Tragodienfiguren a la Dessay. English Critical. Und ihre Lucia di Lammermoor (die sie auch in der franzosischen Fassung drauf hat) liefert keine sich in by sylvia gepflegten Glissandiketten abspulende Wahnsinnsarie ab, sondern den existenziellen Irrsinn einer Gattenmorderin, wie er nicht immer in critical essay den Noten steht. Dafur wurde sie sogar im stimmfetischistischen New York, wo sie bereits als Strauss' alberne Fiakermilli aufhorchen lie?, zur Konigin der Stadt. Keine franzosische Sangerin konnte in resume den letzten drei Dekaden an papers, der Metropolitan Opera so punkten, wie dieser kleine Irrwisch von auch schon 44 Jahren. Le Parfum Resume. Met-Intendant Peter Gelb hat sie deshalb fur die nachsten Jahre mit einer Dessay-Premiere pro essay past, Saison als feste Spielplangro?e eingeplant. A Cover Letter To Unknown. Dieses Jahr wird es der dort ewig nicht gespielte Hamlet sein, den man sonst nur auf besonderen Baritonwunsch hin inszeniert, letztes Jahr war es Bellinis Belcanto-Ruhrstuck La Sonnambula. Weil dem Star die Story um eine tugendsame Schlafwandlerin im Schweizer Gebirgsdorf gar zu albern erschien, musste Regisseurin Mary Zimmerman sie als ironisches Stuck im Stuck auf einer Opernprobe inszenieren. English Critical Essay Papers. Was die librettoglaubigen New Yorker nicht verstanden und goutierten: Zimmerman wurde ausgebuht, Dessay trotzdem gefeiert.

Natalie Dessay, die sich erstmals 2001 und spater noch einmal an cover letter spanish, den Stimmbandern operieren lassen musste und so monatelang auch fern der Buhne als schweigsame Frau agierte, will nur Neuinszenierungen und liebt besonders die Proben (die abschlie?ende Premiere brauche ich eigentlich nicht mehr). English Essay Papers. Sie will als Kontrollfreak, dass das Umfeld stimmt. A Cover Letter To Unknown Recipient. Deshalb erlebt man sie im deutschen Repertoirebetrieb uberhaupt nicht. English Critical Essay Papers. Sie ist eine Schwierige, sie wei? das, genie?t es und leidet gleichzeitig darunter, halb aus Koketterie, halb aus dem Minderwertigkeitsgefuhl heraus, nur ein soubrettiger Koloratursopran zu sein, wo sie doch so gern Isolde ware. Thesis Statement By Sylvia Plath. Jedes ihrer Interviews ist mehr Lamento als Glucksbotschaft. Essay Papers. Trotzdem erfullt sie sich konsequent ihre Traume. Rene Descartes Meditations On First Philosophy. Weil sie erfolgreich ist, und die Kasse jubeln lasst, darf sie das auch. Essay Papers. Wie im Januar in friend Wien die Debussy-Melisande, die ihr eigentlich zu tief liegen musste, sie aber wunderbar scheu spielte (erscheint im Herbst auf DVD). Essay Past. Und eben jetzt die Traviata, wo man nicht jeden Ton auf die Goldwagen legen darf, wo die Stimme nicht selten eigentlich zu klein ist, zu wenig tragt, wo aber jeder Ton trifft und ruhrt, kalkuliert ist und doch spontan wirkt. Kaum eine Violetta der letzten Jahre - die Sensations-Netrebko von Salzburg einmal ausgenommen - hat in rene essay der scheinbar ausgelutschten Rolle so viele neue Nuancen entdeckt. English Past Papers. Statt im Sommer in thesis for metaphors by sylvia Salzburg zum Hofstallgassen-Bussiparcours aufzumarschieren, ist Natalie Dessay lieber mit Mann, zwei Kindern und Eltern im ihr ergebenen Santa Fe, wo auch ihre untypische Traviata bejubelt wird.

Dort war sie Bellinis Amina und - zum ersten und gleich wieder letzten Mal - Mozarts Pamina. Essay Past. Wie stark die Dessay im Umgang mit einem vertrauten Partner ist, das erlebt man immer wieder bei den seltenen Auftritten mit Laurent Naouri, fur den sie sogar zum Judentum konvertiert ist. Plath. Hier stimmt zwischen einem Sangerpaar die Chemie ganz offensichtlich auch auf der Buhne. Wie lange sie noch singen wird, wei? sie selbst nicht, aber kaum ewig. Die Uhr tickt, nicht jeder Koloratursopran hat die eherne Technik und die genau kontrollierte Affektgewalt einer Edita Gruberova. English Essay Papers. Erst einmal singt sie in rene descartes meditations on first philosophy essay Paris, wo die neue Intendanz ihr ebenfalls die Opera zu Fu?en legt, Puccinis Musetta. Essay. Dann aber spielt die ehemalige Schauspielschulerin Natalie Dessay, die in descriptive friend Frankreich bis zu 250000 Stuck pro english essay, CD verkauft, Theater: Thomas Bernhards Der Ignorant und der Wahnsinnige. What We Do To Truly Essay. Ihre Rolle? Naturlich die Konigin der Nacht. Aber ohne einen Mozartton.

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THE BASIC LAWS OF HUMAN STUPIDITY. By Carlo M. Cipolla. illustrations by James Donnelly. The first basic law of english essay papers, human stupidity. The first basic law of human stupidity asserts without ambiguity that: Always and inevitably everyone underestimates the number of stupid individuals in circulation. At first, the spanish, statement sounds trivial, vague and horribly ungenerous. Closer scrutiny will however reveal its realistic veracity. No matter how high are one's estimates of human stupidity, one is repeatedly and recurrently startled by english essay past papers the fact that: a) people whom one had once judged rational and intelligent turn out to be unashamedly stupid. b) day after day, with unceasing monotony, one is harassed in plath one's activities by stupid individuals who appear suddenly and unexpectedly in the most inconvenient places and at the most improbable moments. The First Basic Law prevents me from attributing a specific numerical value to the fraction of stupid people within the total population: any numerical estimate would turn out to be an underestimate.

Thus in the following pages I will denote the fraction of stupid people within a population by essay the symbol ?. Cultural trends now fashionable in the West favour an egalitarian approach to life. People like to think of human beings as the output of a perfectly engineered mass production machine. Geneticists and must understand ourselves, sociologists especially go out of their way to prove, with an impressive apparatus of english critical past papers, scientific data and formulations that all men are naturally equal and if some are more equal than others, this is attributable to nurture and not to nature. I take an exception to this general view. It is my firm conviction, supported by years of essay friend, observation and experimentation, that men are not equal, that some are stupid and others are not, and that the english, difference is determined by nature and not by cultural forces or factors. One is stupid in the same way one is red-haired; one belongs to the stupid set as one belongs to a blood group. A stupid man is addressing a cover to unknown recipient, born a stupid man by an act of critical essay, Providence. Although convinced that fraction of human beings are stupid and that they are so because of genetic traits, I am not a reactionary trying to reintroduce surreptitiously class or race discrimination. I firmly believe that stupidity is an indiscriminate privilege of for metaphors, all human groups and is uniformly distributed according to a constant proportion.

This fact is scientifically expressed by the Second Basic Law which states that. The probability that a certain person be stupid is independent of any other characteristic of that person. In this regard, Nature seems indeed to english critical, have outdone herself. It is well known that Nature manages, rather mysteriously, to keep constant the relative frequency of certain natural phenomena. For instance, whether men proliferate at descartes meditations on first philosophy essay, the Northern Pole or at critical, the Equator, whether the matching couples are developed or underdeveloped, whether they are black, red, white or yellow the female to male ratio among the le parfum, newly born is english past papers, a constant, with a very slight prevalence of males. We do not know how Nature achieves this remarkable result but we know that in order to achieve it Nature must operate with large numbers. The most remarkable fact about the thesis statement plath, frequency of stupidity is past, that Nature succeeds in making this frequency equal to le parfum, the probability quite independently from the size of the group. Thus one finds the same percentage of stupid people whether one is considering very large groups or one is dealing with very small ones. Critical Past? No other set of observable phenomena offers such striking proof of the powers of Nature. The evidence that education has nothing to do with the probability was provided by experiments carried on in a large number of universities all over the world.

One may distinguish the composite population which constitutes a university in five major groups, namely the blue-collar workers, the white-collar employees, the thesis statement for metaphors by sylvia plath, students, the english essay past papers, administrators and a cover to unknown, the professors. Whenever I analyzed the blue-collar workers I found that the fraction ? of critical past papers, them were stupid. Cover Spanish? As ?'s value was higher than I expected (First Law), paying my tribute to fashion I thought at first that segregation, poverty, lack of education were to be blamed. But moving up the social ladder I found that the same ratio was prevalent among the white-collar employees and among the students. Critical Papers? More impressive still were the results among the professors. Whether I considered a large university or a small college, a famous institution or an obscure one, I found that the same fraction ? of the professors are stupid. So bewildered was I by the results, that I made a special point to extend my research to a specially selected group, to cover spanish, a real elite, the Nobel laureates.

The result confirmed Nature's supreme powers: ? fraction of the english papers, Nobel laureates are stupid. This idea was hard to accept and digest but too many experimental results proved its fundamental veracity. The Second Basic Law is an iron law, and it does not admit exceptions. The Women's Liberation Movement will support the Second Basic Law as it shows that stupid individuals are proportionately as numerous among men as among women. The underdeveloped of the Third World will probably take solace at the Second Basic Law as they can find in it the proof that after all the developed are not so developed. Whether the Second Basic Law is liked or not, however, its implications are frightening: the Law implies that whether you move in distinguished circles or you take refuge among the head-hunters of Polynesia, whether you lock yourself into a monastery or decide to spend the rest of your life in the company of beautiful and lascivious women, you always have to addressing a cover letter recipient, face the same percentage of stupid people - which percentage (in accordance with the First Law) will always surpass your expectations. The Third Basic Law assumes, although it does not state it explicitly, that human beings fall into four basic categories: the helpless, the intelligent, the bandit and the stupid.

It will be easily recognized by papers the perspicacious reader that these four categories correspond to the four areas I, H, S, B, of the basic graph (see below). If Tom takes an action and thesis, suffers a loss while producing a gain to Dick, Tom's mark will fall in field H: Tom acted helplessly. If Tom takes an action by which he makes a gain while yielding a gain also to english critical essay, Dick, Tom's mark will fall in area I: Tom acted intelligently. If Tom takes an action by which he makes a gain causing Dick a loss, Tom's mark will fall in le parfum area B: Tom acted as a bandit. Stupidity is related to area S and to all positions on essay past axis Y below point O. What We Do Understand Essay? As the Third Basic Law explicitly clarifies:

A stupid person is a person who causes losses to another person or to a group of persons while himself deriving no gain and even possibly incurring losses. When confronted for critical essay past papers, the first time with the Third Basic Law, rational people instinctively react with feelings of spanish, skepticism and incredulity. The fact is that reasonable people have difficulty in conceiving and past, understanding unreasonable behaviour. But let us abandon the statement for metaphors by sylvia plath, lofty plane of theory and critical essay papers, let us look pragmatically at our daily life. We all recollect occasions in which a fellow took an essay on best action which resulted in his gain and our loss: we had to deal with a bandit. We also recollect cases in which a fellow took an action which resulted in his loss and our gain: we had to deal with a helpless person. We can recollect cases in which a fellow took an action by which both parties gained: he was intelligent.

Such cases do indeed occur. But upon thoughtful reflection you must admit that these are not the events which punctuate most frequently our daily life. Critical Essay Past Papers? Our daily life is cover spanish, mostly, made of cases in which we lose money and/or time and/or energy and/or appetite, cheerfulness and good health because of the improbable action of some preposterous creature who has nothing to gain and indeed gains nothing from causing us embarrassment, difficulties or harm. Nobody knows, understands or can possibly explain why that preposterous creature does what he does. In fact there is no explanation - or better there is only one explanation: the person in question is critical essay, stupid. Most people do not act consistently. Under certain circumstances a given person acts intelligently and under different circumstances the same person will act helplessly. The only important exception to the rule is represented by the stupid people who normally show a strong proclivity toward perfect consistency in all fields of human endeavours. From all that proceeds, it does not follow, that we can chart on the basic graph only stupid individuals.

We can calculate for resume, each person his weighted average position in the plane of figure 1 quite independently from english critical past, his degree of inconsistency. Letter To Unknown Recipient? A helpless person may occasionally behave intelligently and on occasion he may perform a bandit's action. Essay Past? But since the person in question is fundamentally helpless most of his action will have the characteristics of helplessness. Thus the overall weighted average position of all the actions of such a person will place him in must we do essay the H quadrant of the basic graph. The fact that it is critical essay past papers, possible to place on the graph individuals instead of their actions allows some digression about the frequency of the bandit and addressing to unknown recipient, stupid types. The perfect bandit is one who, with his actions, causes to other individuals losses equal to essay papers, his gains. The crudest type of banditry is theft. A person who robs you of we do essay, 100 pounds without causing you an extra loss or harm is a perfect bandit: you lose 100 pounds, he gains 100 pounds. In the basic graph the perfect bandits would appear on a 45-degree diagonal line that divides the area B into critical essay, two perfectly symmetrical sub-areas (line OM of figure 2). However the perfect bandits are relatively few.

The line OM divides the area B into two sub-areas, B 1 , and B 2 , and by far the largest majority of the bandits falls somewhere in what must to truly one of these two sub-areas. The bandits who fall in area B 1 are those individuals whose actions yield to them profits which are larger than the losses they cause to other people. All bandits who are entitled to a position in area B 1 are bandits with overtones of intelligence and english critical essay papers, as they get closer to the right side of the X axis they share more and more the characteristics of the intelligent person. Unfortunately the individuals entitled to a position in the B 1 area are not very numerous. Most bandits actually fall in area B 2 . The individuals who fall in this area are those whose actions yield to them gains inferior to the losses inflicted to other people. If someone kills you in order to rob you of fifty pounds or if he murders you in a cover letter to unknown recipient order to spend a weekend with your wife at Monte Carlo, we can be sure that he is not a perfect bandit. Even by using his values to measure his gains (but still using your values to english critical past papers, measure your losses) he falls in the B 2 area very close to the border of sheer stupidity. Generals who cause vast destruction and innumerable casualties in return for descartes on first essay, a promotion or a medal fall in the same area. The frequency distribution of the stupid people is totally different from that of the english critical essay papers, bandit. While bandits are mostly scattered over an area stupid people are heavily concentrated along one line, specifically on the Y axis below point O. Ourselves? The reason for essay, this is that by far the majority of stupid people are basically and unwaveringly stupid - in other words they perseveringly insist in causing harm and losses to other people without deriving any gain, whether positive or negative. There are however people who by their improbable actions not only cause damages to other people but in addition hurt themselves.

They are a sort of super-stupid who, in our system of accounting, will appear somewhere in the area S to the left of the Y axis. It is not difficult to resume, understand how social, political and institutional power enhances the damaging potential of a stupid person. But one still has to explain and understand what essentially it is that makes a stupid person dangerous to other people - in critical past papers other words what constitutes the power of stupidity. Essentially stupid people are dangerous and damaging because reasonable people find it difficult to imagine and addressing letter to unknown, understand unreasonable behaviour. Essay Past Papers? An intelligent person may understand the logic of a bandit. The bandit's actions follow a pattern of rationality: nasty rationality, if you like, but still rationality. The bandit wants a plus on his account. Since he is descriptive on best, not intelligent enough to devise ways of obtaining the plus as well as providing you with a plus, he will produce his plus by causing a minus to appear on your account.

All this is bad, but it is rational and critical essay papers, if you are rational you can predict it. You can foresee a bandit's actions, his nasty manoeuvres and ugly aspirations and often can build up your defenses. With a stupid person all this is absolutely impossible as explained by the Third Basic Law. A stupid creature will harass you for thesis, no reason, for no advantage, without any plan or scheme and at the most improbable times and critical papers, places. You have no rational way of telling if and when and how and why the stupid creature attacks. When confronted with a stupid individual you are completely at his mercy. Because the stupid person's actions do not conform to le parfum, the rules of rationality, it follows that: a) one is critical past, generally caught by surprise by letter spanish the attack; b) even when one becomes aware of the attack, one cannot organize a rational defense, because the critical essay papers, attack itself lacks any rational structure. The fact that the activity and resume, movements of a stupid creature are absolutely erratic and english critical, irrational not only makes defense problematic but it also makes any counter-attack extremely difficult - like trying to shoot at spanish, an object which is capable of the most improbable and unimaginable movements. This is english critical, what both Dickens and descartes meditations philosophy essay, Schiller had in mind when the former stated that with stupidity and sound digestion man may front much and the latter wrote that against stupidity the very Gods fight in critical essay vain.

That helpless people, namely those who in our accounting system fall into the H area, do not normally recognize how dangerous stupid people are, is not at all surprising. Meditations Essay? Their failure is just another expression of their helplessness. The truly amazing fact, however, is that also intelligent people and critical past papers, bandits often fail to recognize the power to damage inherent in stupidity. It is extremely difficult to explain why this should happen and one can only thesis for metaphors by sylvia remark that when confronted with stupid individuals often intelligent men as well as bandits make the english critical essay, mistake of indulging in le parfum resume feelings of self-complacency and english essay, contemptuousness instead of immediately secreting adequate quantities of adrenaline and building up defenses. One is friend, tempted to believe that a stupid man will only do harm to himself but this is confusing stupidity with helplessness. On occasion one is tempted to associate oneself with a stupid individual in order to use him for one's own schemes. Such a manoeuvre cannot but have disastrous effects because a) it is based on critical essay a complete misunderstanding of the essential nature of stupidity and b) it gives the stupid person added scope for the exercise of his gifts. One may hope to outmanoeuvre the stupid and, up to a point, one may actually do so. But because of the erratic behaviour of the stupid, one cannot foresee all the stupid's actions and reactions and on best friend, before long one will be pulverized by the unpredictable moves of the stupid partner. This is clearly summarized in the Fourth Basic Law which states that:

Non-stupid people always underestimate the damaging power of stupid individuals. In particular non-stupid people constantly forget that at all times and places and under any circumstances to deal and/or associate with stupid people always turns out to be a costly mistake. Through centuries and millennia, in public as in private life, countless individuals have failed to take account of the essay papers, Fourth Basic Law and the failure has caused mankind incalculable losses. Instead of addressing a cover letter to unknown, considering the welfare of the individual let us consider the welfare of the society, regarded in english critical essay past papers this context as the algebraic sum of the individual conditions. Spanish? A full understanding of the english critical essay past, Fifth Basic Law is essential to the analysis. It may be parenthetically added here that of the Five Basic Laws, the Fifth is certainly the best known and its corollary is quoted very frequently. The Fifth Basic Law states that: A stupid person is the most dangerous type of person. The corollary of the Law is that: A stupid person is cover spanish, more dangerous than a bandit. The result of the past, action of a perfect bandit (the person who falls on line OM of figure 2) is purely and le parfum resume, simply a transfer of wealth and/or welfare.

After the action of critical essay past papers, a perfect bandit, the bandit has a plus on his account which plus is exactly equivalent to the minus he has caused to another person. The society as a whole is neither better nor worse off. If all members of a society were perfect bandits the society would remain stagnant but there would be no major disaster. Descriptive Essay Friend? The whole business would amount to massive transfers of wealth and welfare in english essay past papers favour of those who would take action. If all members of the society would take action in regular turns, not only the society as a whole but also individuals would find themselves in a perfectly steady state of no change. When stupid people are at work, the story is totally different. Stupid people cause losses to other people with no counterpart of gains on their own account. Thus the society as a whole is impoverished. On First Essay? The system of accounting which finds expression in the basic graphs shows that while all actions of individuals falling to the right of the line POM (see fig. 3) add to the welfare of a society; although in different degrees, the actions of all individuals falling to the left of the same line POM cause a deterioration.

In other words the helpless with overtones of intelligence (area H 1 ), the bandits with overtones of intelligence (area B 1 ) and above all the intelligent (area I) all contribute, though in different degrees, to english essay, accrue to the welfare of a society. On the le parfum, other hand the bandits with overtones of stupidity (area B 2 ) and the helpless with overtones of stupidity (area H 2 ) manage to add losses to those caused by essay papers stupid people thus enhancing the nefarious destructive power of the latter group. All this suggests some reflection on on best the performance of english critical essay past papers, societies. Le Parfum? According to the Second Basic Law, the fraction of stupid people is a constant ? which is not affected by time, space, race, class or any other sociocultural or historical variable. It would be a profound mistake to believe the number of stupid people in a declining society is greater than in english critical a developing society. We Do Ourselves Essay? Both such societies are plagued by the same percentage of stupid people. The difference between the english papers, two societies is that in the society which performs poorly: a) the stupid members of the society are allowed by the other members to become more active and on best friend, take more actions; b) there is a change in the composition of the non-stupid section with a relative decline of english, populations of areas I, H 1 and B 1 and a proportionate increase of populations H 2 and by sylvia plath, B 2 . This theoretical presumption is abundantly confirmed by an exhaustive analysis of historical cases. In fact the historical analysis allows us to reformulate the theoretical conclusions in a more factual way and with more realistic detail.

Whether one considers classical, or medieval, or modern or contemporary times one is impressed by the fact that any country moving uphill has its unavoidable ? fraction of stupid people. However the english critical, country moving uphill also has an unusually high fraction of intelligent people who manage to keep the ? fraction at bay and at the same time produce enough gains for themselves and the other members of the community to make progress a certainty. In a country which is to unknown recipient, moving downhill, the fraction of stupid people is still equal to ?; however in the remaining population one notices among those in power an alarming proliferation of the bandits with overtones of stupidity (sub-area B 2 of quadrant B in figure 3) and among those not in english critical essay power an equally alarming growth in the number of helpless individuals (area H in le parfum resume basic graph, fig.1). English Critical Past Papers? Such change in letter the composition of the non-stupid population inevitably strengthens the destructive power of the past, ? fraction and makes decline a certainty. And the country goes to Hell. There is genius at work in this thesis. It came round about by way of le parfum resume, reader Sam Keen, who sent to the UK a thin gray monograph printed anonimously in mid-1986 in english critical past papers Bologna, Italy. The trail eventually led to essay on best, Carlo M. Cipolla, the author, who was Professor of Economics at UC Berkeley but, alas died in 2000 and left behind a bunch of (half-american) offsprings. Critical Essay Past? who promptly tried to scrap money out of everything he had written, even if -as in the case of this small text- clearly earmarked and STATED by the Author in its 1986 version as intended for the public domain (and yes, stated again in rene meditations on first philosophy 1992, despite having re-published this text in critical past 1988, slightly modified, in his Allegro ma non troppo copyrighted collection). This copy comes from Whole Earth Review (Spring 1987 pp 2 - 7) and is anyway easy to find all over le parfum resume, the web and/or on any webarchive facility à la wayback machine.

There isn't of course, nor cannot be, any valid patent or bogus copyright on this work that Professor Cipolla personally WANTED to have in the public domain and incidentally BECAUSE OF ITS VERY OPEN SPREADING is the only one that has made -and still makes- him famous all over the web. We firmly believe that this belongs into english, any reality cracker's quiver, and that the best onor to the Author and the best chance that anyone will buy his other texts (frankly also equally easy to rene descartes, find in many grey areas of Internet, but waay less interesting) is to critical past, allow this nice little essay to be spread around as originally clearly intended by Professor Cipolla himself.