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Another way of dramatic tension created by malcolm x term, Priestley through the role of Eric Birling, where he explores rich people abuse poor people. The point is the resume, audience may have lost interest in him. Malcolm X Term. Extracts from this document. An Inspector Calls An Inspector Calls is a play written by John Priestley and it was written in thesis channels 1945. It was set in 1912, just before World War 1 started.

John Boynton Priestley was born in Bradford, Yorkshire on 13 September 1894. At the age of 16, Priestley decided to leave school rather than work towards a university scholarship. It was during the period before World War 1 that Priestley gained much of the malcolm, experience which was to colour his writing career. J.B. Priestley wrote his first novel 'The Good Companions' and it was success, also he wrote his 2nd novel, 'Angel Pavement' and it was published in 1930. Research Secondhand. Over the next 7 years Priestley established himself as a leading figure in the London Theater which such play as 'Laburnum Grove' (1933). It was written in 1934 but like and An Inspector Calls, set in 1912.

The play is set in Brumley, an industrial city in the north Midland's in x term papers the year 1912. In this essay I will talk about Inspector Goole a character in 'An Inspector Calls'. I will talk about cs engineer how believable a policeman he is, how Priestly the author of the story uses the malcolm papers, character and sell my college how the Inspectors treatments of the characters vary. Malcolm. First I will describe who the Inspector is, what sort of outline a character he is and will describe very briefly who the papers, Birling family are including Gerald Croft. The plot of An Inspector Calls is literary things they carried, about a police Inspector who interrupts an elegant engagement dinner party to question the family and their guests about an malcolm, unsuspected suicide of a young working-class girl called Eva Smith. There are many plot twists and changes which work well with the characters portrayed in Priestley's play. The play is set in an upper-class household where class distinctions are breaking down, where privilege and responsibility are being challenged by a devious so-called Inspector Goole. . read more.

Priestley created dramatic tension with a cliffhanger at the end of essays every Act. Malcolm Papers. There is an example in Act 1 where Sheila says, Why - you fool - he knows. Of course he knows. And I hate to think how much he knows that we don't know yet. Sheila becomes a stronger character as the resume, play moves on into Act 2. Malcolm Papers. She disagrees with things people say, instead of merely going along with what others have to say. The Inspector shows a picture to Arthur Birling to show her identifies to make him accept he should also be blamed for her death; as he refused her a pay rise of only a few shillings in her wage. The Inspector showed that picture to the other Birling's as well but Arthur Birling didn't understand why he is being questioned he did accept that when Eva asked to him arise her wage he had discharged her and felt no sympathy for her. H e isn't ashamed of what he did as he is a businessman who cares about the profit and not the people who comes across this sort of stuff everyday. Sheila is the next one in the first to be interrogated , she complained to the manager at Milwards as she thought that Eva Smith was making fun of her while she tried on comparison a new dress. X Term Papers. As a result of this Eva Smith on as she called herself Daisy Renton, was killed out of her job. Sheila feels very ashamed about her behaviour and feels sympathy towards Eva Smith.

She is open and, agrees about her involvement with the girls' death But these girls aren't cheap labour. They're people. Then afterwards she also stood up for resume, Eva Smith's rights by making a good speech to her family. Sheila is completely opposite malcolm x term, of her mother because her mother doesn't care about the lower class people. Sell Essays. . read more. Eva/Daisy was at malcolm x term papers a time where she was most emotional and she must have been feeling desperate as her life had progressed in a downward spiral ever since she lost her job for fighting for what she believed in. When she presented her case to Mrs. Birling she did not expect a miracle but did hope for a little help. When Mrs.

Birling refused her help, she must have felt like that was the last straw. My College Essays. She had missed the x term, last train to any sort of life improvement and felt that she had no other option but to end her life. The most dramatic point in the play is when the Inspector says in his final speech 'we are responsible for each other. Thesis Distribution Channels. if men will not learn that lesson, then they will be taught in x term papers fire and blood and anguish.' This is an comparison essay, implication that he is criticizing those who do not learn, not those who have acted that way in the past. We get the impression that she is a when Priestly adds, 'very pleased with life'. She is ignorant to the world of the working class, and is constantly surrounded by her riches without even considering the lives of other people. During the engagement party, Gerald gives Sheila an engagement ring.

This is to represent their relationship and love. Her words on receiving the gift are 'Oh -Gerald-you've got it'. The pause in her sentence indicates the excitement in her voice. She then becomes very involved with the present- like a child receiving a birthday gift. Mr. Birling is malcolm papers, about to make his speech about the war and thesis distribution the Titanic, however, he pauses when he realizes that Sheila may not be listening, as she is malcolm x term papers, only concentrating on her ring. This is what a child may do when receiving a toy. This as with both her 'mummy' and her father gives us the impression that these people are annoying and makes us dislike them ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 RAJAN AJEETH 10 MCT . read more.

This student written piece of comparison essay work is one of malcolm many that can be found in our GCSE J.B. Priestley section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from distribution channels just £6.99 per month. The apportioning of blame and responsibility are central themes in 'An Inspector Calls'. Malcolm X Term Papers. Each . we can see her trying this with the inspector when she calls him 'impertinent' and resume the way he spoke to her 'disgusting' yet she still cannot beat him and unknowingly her refusal to malcolm x term let anybody know she had been involved with Eva Smith/Daisy Renton fails and she ends up telling the inspector the whole story.

How does Priestley create dramatic tension in Act 1 of An Inspector Calls up . Proxemics are used to symbolise the physical relationship between the family as a reminder of their demise. By saying that the wife and husband are seated at opposite ends of the table it adds tension because of the distance in-between them. Discuss The Role Of Eric Birling In The Play: An Inspector Calls. This is because at one point he agrees with him when he says And as you were saying Dad, a man has to research secondhand look after himself, and at another he disagrees when they are having a discussion about the reason for malcolm papers, Eva Smiths death. Discussthe role of the Inspector in the play 'An Inspector Calls' He got a lot of his inspiration for outline research secondhand smoke, his writing before World War 1, the malcolm, years 1911-1914. When war broke out in cs engineer resume 1914, he joined the infantry, at malcolm x term the age of 22. He left in 1919, narrowly escaping death on the front-line, also being the victim of cs engineer a gas attack.

How does J.B. Priestley create dramatic tension and suspense in Act One of amp;quot;An . He also predicts a knighthood for himself, if he stays out of trouble. Going by the audience's assumption, he's going to hit a snag along the way, and may find himself having to forego his knighthood. Following this conversation, Eric enters, and wonders why the two men are laughing (he. How does Priestley create tension in the play through characterisation, structure and papers atmosphere? young girl drinking disinfectant or any like, The others show their nervous tension as Gerald waits for a reply, the audience is also in tension as the characters show nervousness through Mr Birling wiping his brow, Sheila begins to thesis channels shiver and Eric continuously clasps and unclasps his hands.

Show how in amp;quot;An Inspector Callsamp;quot; Priestley creates dramatic tension through focus on characters, . You knew it then. You began to learn something. Malcolm X Term. And now you've stopped. You're ready to sell my college go on malcolm papers in the same old way. Sheila realises it is very poingnont when she learns of exactly when the Inspector arrived and feels that there was something curious about him and thesis that he never seemed like an x term, ordinary police inspector. Analyse the dramatic devices Priestley employs in outline research smoke amp;quot;An Inspector Callsamp;quot; to create tension and papers . This is due to distribution channels the way they are remorseful for their actions. Sheila states, ?I felt rotten about x term papers it at the time and now I feel a lot worse? showing how the impact, death has affected her because she knows she is partly responsible for it, ?No, not really it was. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work.

Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of malcolm x term papers The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to impact read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for x term, anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. My College. Looking for expert help with your English work?

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Internet Encyclopedia of malcolm, Philosophy. Just war theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought. The justification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethically justifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. Outline Secondhand Smoke. The historical aspect, or the just war tradition, deals with the historical body of malcolm, rules or agreements that have applied in literary on the carried, various wars across the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and Hague conventions are historical rules aimed at limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to in prosecuting transgressors, but it is the role of ethics to examine these institutional agreements for x term papers their philosophical coherence as well as to inquire into whether aspects of the comparison, conventions ought to be changed. Malcolm. The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of various philosophers and lawyers through the introduction, ages and malcolm x term papers, examine both their philosophical visions of comparison essay, war’s ethical limits (or absence of) and whether their thoughts have contributed to x term papers, the body of conventions that have evolved to guide war and warfare.

Historically, the just war tradition--a set of mutually agreed rules of combat—may be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies. That is, when an array of thesis, values are shared between two warring peoples, we often find that they implicitly or explicitly agree upon limits to their warfare. X Term. But when enemies differ greatly because of different religious beliefs, race, or language, and as such they see each other as “less than human”, war conventions are rarely applied. It is only when the enemy is seen to be a people, sharing a moral identity with whom one will do business in the following peace, that tacit or explicit rules are formed for how wars should be fought and literary essays things, who they should involve and what kind of relations should apply in malcolm papers, the aftermath of channels, war. In part, the motivation for forming or agreeing to certain conventions, can be seen as mutually benefiting—preferable, for instance, to the deployment of any underhand tactics or weapons that may provoke an indefinite series of vengeance acts, or the kinds of action that have proved to be detrimental to the political or moral interests to malcolm, both sides in the past. Regardless of the conventions that have historically formed, it has been the concern of the on the they, majority of just war theorists that the lack of rules to war or any asymmetrical morality between belligerents should be denounced, and that the rules of war should apply to all equally. That is, just war theory should be universal, binding on all and capable in turn of appraising the actions of all parties over and above any historically formed conventions. The just war tradition is papers indeed as old as warfare itself.

Early records of collective fighting indicate that some moral considerations were used by warriors to limit the outbreak or to rein in the potential devastation of warfare. Bioessays. They may have involved consideration of women and children or the treatment of prisoners (enslaving them rather than killing them, or ransoming or exchanging them). Commonly, the earlier traditions invoked considerations of honor: some acts in war have always been deemed dishonorable, whilst others have been deemed honorable. However, what is malcolm papers “honorable” is often highly specific to culture: for instance, a suicidal attack or defense may be deemed the honorable act for one people but ludicrous to thesis distribution, another. Robinson (2006) notes that honor conventions are also contextually slippery, giving way to pragmatic or military interest when required. Whereas the specifics of what is honorable differ with time and place, the very fact that one moral virtue is alluded to in the great literature (for example, Homer’s Iliad ) is sufficient for malcolm x term us to note that warfare has been infused with some moral concerns from the literary things they carried, beginning rather than war being a mere Macbethian bloodbath. The just war theory also has a long history. Parts of the Bible hint at ethical behavior in war and concepts of just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by malcolm x term, divine intervention; the Greeks may have paid lip service to the gods, but, as with the Romans, practical and political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of state or Realpolitik (the theory known as political realism would take precedence in declaring and waging war. Nonetheless, this has also been the reading of political realists, who enjoy Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War as an example of why war is necessarily the extension of politics and hence permeated by my college essays, hard-nosed state interest rather than “lofty” pretensions to malcolm papers, moral behavior. Although St.

Augustine provided comments on the morality of war from the Christian perspective (railing against essays, the love of malcolm, violence that war can engender) as did several Arabic commentators in introduction, the intellectual flourishing from the 9th to 12th centuries, but the most systematic exposition in the Western tradition and one that still attracts attention was outlined by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century. In the Summa Theologicae , Aquinas presents the general outline of what becomes the traditional just war theory as discussed in modern universities. He discusses not only the justification of war but also the kinds of papers, activity that are permissible (for a Christian) in war (see below). Aquinas's thoughts become the thesis distribution channels, model for later Scholastics and Jurists to malcolm x term papers, expand and to literary essays on the things carried, gradually to universalize beyond Christendom – notably, for instance, in relations with the peoples of malcolm x term, America following European incursions into the continent. The most important of outline research paper smoke, these writers are: Francisco de Vitoria (1486-1546), Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1704), Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and Emerich de Vattel (1714-1767). In the twentieth century, just war theory has undergone a revival mainly in x term, response to the invention of nuclear weaponry and American involvement in the Vietnam war. The most important contemporary texts include Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (1977), Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill The Ethics of War (1979), Richard Norman Ethics, Killing, and War (1995), Brian Orend War and International Justice (2001) and Michael Walzer on outline secondhand smoke War and Justice (2001), as well as seminal articles by papers, Thomas Nagel War and Massacre, Elizabeth Anscombe War and Murder, and a host of others, commonly found in the journals Ethics or The Journal of Philosophy and Public Affairs . Since the my college, terrorist attacks on the USA on 9/11 in 2001, academics have turned their attention to just war once again with international, national, academic, and military conferences developing and consolidating the theoretical aspects of the conventions. Just war theory has become a popular topic in International Relations, Political Science, Philosophy, Ethics, and Military History courses. Conference proceedings are regularly published, offering readers a breadth of issues that the malcolm papers, topic stirs: for example, Alexander Moseley and cs engineer, Richard Norman, eds. Human Rights and Military Intervention , Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in a Comparative Perspective , Alexsander Jokic, ed., War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing . X Term Papers. What has been of great interest is that in the headline wars of the past decade, the dynamic interplay of the rules and conventions of warfare not only remain intact on the battlefield but their role and hence their explication have been awarded a higher level of scrutiny and debate.

In the political circles, justification of war still requires even in the most critical analysis a superficial acknowledgement of justification. On the ground, generals have extolled their troops to adhere to the rules, soldiers are taught the just war conventions in the military academies (for example, explicitly through military ethics courses or implicitly through veterans’ experiences). My College. Yet despite the emphasis on abiding by war’s conventions, war crimes continue - genocidal campaigns have been waged by mutually hating peoples, leaders have waged total war on ethnic groups within or without their borders, and individual soldiers or guerilla bands have committed atrocious, murderous, or humiliating acts on their enemy. But, arguably, such acts do remain atrocities by virtue of the just war conventions that some things in war are deemed to be inexcusable, regardless of the righteousness of the cause or the noise and fog of malcolm, battle. Yet increasingly, the rule of law - the need to hold violators and bioessays, transgressors responsible for their actions in malcolm, war and therefore after the essays things they carried, battle - is making headway onto the battlefield. In chivalrous times, the Christian crusader could seek priestly absolution for atrocities committed in war, a stance supported by x term papers, Augustine for outline research secondhand smoke example; today, the malcolm x term, law courts are seemingly less forgiving: a violation of the conventions assumes that the soldier is thesis distribution channels responsible and accountable and should be charged for a crime. Nonetheless, the idealism of those who seek the imposition of law and responsibility on the battlefield (cf. Geoffrey Robertson's Crimes Against Humanity ), often runs ahead of the traditions and customs, or plain state interests, that demean or weaken the justum bellum that may exist between warring factions.

And in some cases, no just war conventions and hence no potential for legal acknowledgement of malcolm papers, malfeasance, exist at all; in such cases, the bioessays impact, ethic of war is considered, or is malcolm papers implicitly held to be, beyond the resume, norms of peaceful ethics and therefore deserving a separate moral realm where fair is papers foul and sell essays, foul is fair (Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i). In such examples (e.g, Rwanda, 1994), a people's justification of destructiveness and killing to malcolm x term, whatever relative degree they hold to comparison essay, be justifiable triumphs over attempts to establish the laws of peaceful interaction into this separate bloody realm; and in some wars, people fighting for their land or nation prefer to pick up the cudgel rather than the rapier, as Leo Tolstoy notes in War and Peace (Book 4.Ch.2), to sidestep the etiquette or war in favor securing their land from x term occupational or invading forces. The continued brutality of war in the face of comparison introduction, conventions and courts of international law lead some to maintain that the malcolm x term, application of morality to war is a nonstarter: state interest or military exigency would always overwhelm moral concerns. But there are those of sell my college essays, a more skeptical persuasion who do not believe that morality can or should exist in war: its very nature precludes ethical concerns. But as there are several ethical viewpoints, there are also several common reasons laid against the need or the possibility of morality in malcolm papers, war. Introduction. Generally, consequentialists and act utilitarians may claim that if military victory is sought then all methods should be employed to ensure it is gained at a minimum of expense and time. Arguments from 'military necessity' are of this type; for example, to defeat Germany in malcolm x term papers, World War II, it was deemed necessary to bomb civilian centers, or in the US Civil War, for General Sherman to channels, burn Atlanta. However, intrinsicists (who claim that there are certain acts that are good or bad in malcolm, themselves) may also decree that no morality can exist in they, the state of war: they may claim that it can only exist in a peaceful situation in which, for instance, recourse exists to conflict resolving institutions. X Term. Alternatively, intrinsicists may claim that possessing a just cause (the argument from righteousness) is a sufficient condition for pursuing whatever means are necessary to gain a victory or to punish an enemy. A different skeptical argument, one advanced by Michael Walzer, is that the invention of nuclear weapons alters war so much that our notions of morality—and hence just war theories—become redundant.

However, against Walzer, it can be reasonably argued that although such weapons change the nature of warfare (for example, the timing, range, and potential devastation) they do not dissolve the need to consider their use within a moral framework: a nuclear warhead remains a weapon and weapons can be morally or immorally employed. Whilst skeptical positions may be derived from consequentialist and intrinsicist positions, they need not be. Consequentialists can argue that there are long-term benefits to bioessays, having a war convention. For example, by fighting cleanly, both sides can be sure that the war does not escalate, thus reducing the malcolm x term, probability of creating an incessant war of counter-revenges. Intrinsicists, on the other hand, can argue that certain spheres of life ought never to be targeted in war; for example, hospitals and densely populated suburbs. The inherent problem with both ethical models is that they become either vague or restrictive when it comes to war.

Consequentialism is an open-ended model, highly vulnerable to pressing military or political needs to adhere to any code of conduct in war: if more will be gained from breaking the rules than will be lost, the consequentialist cannot but demur to military “necessity.” On the other hand, intrinsicism can be so restrictive that it permits no flexibility in war: whether it entails a Kantian thesis of comparison introduction, dutifully respecting others or a classical rights position, intrinsicism produces an inflexible model that would restrain warriors’ actions to the targeting of permissible targets only. In principle such a prescription is commendable, yet the nature of war is not so clean cut when military targets can be hidden amongst civilian centers. Against these two ethical positions, just war theory offers a series of principles that aim to retain a plausible moral framework for war. Malcolm X Term Papers. From the just war ( justum bellum ) tradition, theorists distinguish between the rules that govern the justice of war ( jus ad bellum ) from those that govern just and fair conduct in war ( jus In bello ) and the responsibility and accountability of warring parties after the war ( jus post bellum ). The three aspects are by no means mutually exclusive, but they offer a set of moral guidelines for waging war that are neither unrestricted nor too restrictive. Outline Research Paper Secondhand. The problem for ethics involves expounding the guidelines in particular wars or situations. The principles of the justice of war are commonly held to be: having just cause, being a last resort, being declared by a proper authority, possessing right intention, having a reasonable chance of success, and the end being proportional to the means used. One can immediately detect that the principles are not wholly intrinsicist nor consequentialist—they invoke the concerns of both models. Whilst this provides just war theory with the advantage of flexibility, the lack of a strict ethical framework means that the principles themselves are open to broad interpretations. Examining each in x term papers, turn draws attention to the relevant problems. Possessing just cause is the first and arguably the most important condition of thesis channels, jus ad bellum . Most theorists hold that initiating acts of malcolm x term, aggression is unjust and gives a group a just cause to defend itself.

But unless aggression is defined, this proscription is bioessays rather open-ended. For example, just cause resulting from an act of aggression can ostensibly be a response to a physical injury (for example, a violation of territory), an insult (an aggression against national honor), a trade embargo (an aggression against economic activity), or even to a neighbor’s prosperity (a violation of social justice). The onus is then on the just war theorist to x term papers, provide a consistent and sound account of thesis distribution, what is meant by just cause. Malcolm. Whilst not going into the reasons why the essays on the they, other explanations do not offer a useful condition of just cause, the consensus is that an initiation of physical force is wrong and may justly be resisted. Self-defense against physical aggression, therefore, is putatively the only sufficient reason for malcolm x term papers just cause. Nonetheless, the principle of essay introduction, self-defense can be extrapolated to anticipate probable acts of aggression, as well as in papers, assisting others against an oppressive government or from another external threat (interventionism). Therefore, it is commonly held that aggressive war is only permissible if its purpose is to retaliate against a wrong already committed (for example, to pursue and punish an aggressor), or to pre-empt an anticipated attack. Distribution. In recent years, the argument for x term preemption has gained supporters in the West: surely, the argument goes, it is right on consequentialist grounds to strike the first blow if a future war is to distribution channels, be avoided? By acting decisively against a probable aggressor, a powerful message is sent that a nation will defend itself with armed force; thus preemption may provide a deterrent and a more peaceful world. However, critics complain that preemptive strikes are based on conjectured rather than impending aggression and in effect denounce the moral principle that an agent is papers presumed innocent – posturing and the building up of armaments do not in themselves constitute aggression, just a man carrying a weapon is not a man using a weapon, Consequentialist critics may also reject preemption on the grounds that it is more likely to destabilize peace, while other realists may complain that a preemptive strike policy is the ploy of a tyrannical or bullying power that justifies other nations to act in their self-interest to neutralize either through alliances or military action – such is the principle behind the “balance of power” politics in on the things they carried, which nations constantly renew their alliances and treatises to papers, ensure that not one of them becomes a hegemonic power.

It is also feared that the policy of preemption slips easily into the machinations of “false flag operations” in which a pretext for bioessays impact war is created by a contrived theatrical or actual stunt – of dressing one’s own soldiers up in malcolm papers, the enemy’s uniforms, for secondhand instance, and having them attack a military or even civilian target so as to gain political backing for a war. Unfortunately, false flag operations tend to be quite common. Just war theory would reject them as it would reject waging war to defend a leader’s “honor” following an insult. X Term. Realists may defend them on grounds of comparison, a higher necessity but such moves are likely to fail as being smoke screens for malcolm x term political rather than moral interests. War should always be a last resort. This connects intimately with presenting a just cause – all other forms of essays, solution must have been attempted prior to the declaration of war. It has often been recognized that war unleashes forces and powers that soon get beyond the grips of the papers, leaders and generals to control – there is too much “fog” in war, as Clausewitz noted, but that fog is also a moral haze in which truth and trust are early casualties. The resulting damage that war wrecks tends to be very high for most economies and so theorists have advised that war should not be lightly accepted: once unleashed, war is not like a sport that can be quickly stopped at the blow of bioessays impact, a whistle (although the Celtic druids supposedly had the power to stop a battle by malcolm papers, virtue of their moral standing) and its repercussions last for generations. Holding “hawks” at bay though is a complicated task – the apparent ease by which war may resolve disputes, especially in the eyes of those whose military might is apparently great and victory a certainty, does present war as a low cost option relative to continuing political problems and economic or moral hardship. Yet the just war theorist wishes to underline the need to attempt all other solutions but also to tie the justice of the war to comparison introduction, the other principles of jus ad bellum too. The notion of proper authority seems to malcolm, be resolved for most of the theorists, who claim it obviously resides in the sovereign power of the state.

But the concept of sovereignty raises a plethora of issues to consider here. If a government is just, i.e., most theorists would accept that the government is accountable and does not rule arbitrarily, then giving the officers of the state the bioessays impact, right to declare war is x term reasonable, so the more removed from a proper and just form a government is, the more reasonable it is that its claim to justifiable political sovereignty disintegrates. A historical example can elucidate the problem: when Nazi Germany invaded France in 1940 it set up the Vichy puppet regime. What allegiance did the people of France under its rule owe to cs engineer, its precepts and rules? A Hobbesian rendition of almost absolute allegiance to the state entails that resistance is wrong (so long as the state is not tyrannical and imposes war when it should be the guardian of peace); whereas a Lockean or instrumentalist conception of the state entails that a poorly accountable, inept, or corrupt regime possesses no sovereignty, and the right of x term papers, declaring war (to defend themselves against the government or from a foreign power) is wholly justifiable.

The notion of proper authority therefore requires thinking about what is meant by sovereignty, what is meant by the state, and what is the proper relationship between a people and its government. The possession of right intention is ostensibly less problematic. Introduction. The general thrust of the concept being that a nation waging a just war should be doing so for x term the cause of justice and on the things, not for reasons of self-interest or aggrandizement. Putatively, a just war cannot be considered to x term, be just if reasons of national interest are paramount or overwhelm the pretext of fighting aggression. However, “right intention” masks many philosophical problems. According to Kant, possessing good intent constitutes the bioessays impact, only condition of moral activity, regardless of the consequences envisioned or caused, and regardless, or even in spite, of x term, any self interest in the action the agent may have. The extreme intrinsicism of Kant can be criticized on various grounds, the most pertinent here being the value of self-interest itself. At what point does right intention separate itself from self-interest – is the moral worthiness of intent only gained by outline research paper secondhand, acting in malcolm x term, favor of one’s neighbor, and resume, if so, what does that imply for x term papers moral action – that one should woo one’s neighbor’s spouse to make him/her feel good? Acting with proper intent requires us to think about what is proper and paper secondhand smoke, it is malcolm x term papers not certain that not acting in self interest is necessarily the literary essays things, proper thing to do. On the one hand, if the only method to secure a general peace (some thing usually held to malcolm x term, be good in bioessays impact, itself) is to annex a belligerent neighbor's territory, political aggrandizement becomes intimately connected with the proper intention of maintaining the x term papers, peace for all or the literary on the they, majority.

On the other hand, a nation may possess just cause to defend an oppressed group, and may rightly argue that the proper intention is to secure their freedom, yet such a war may justly be deemed too expensive or too difficult to wage; i.e., it is not ultimately in malcolm x term papers, their self-interest to resume, fight the x term papers, just war. On that account, the bioessays impact, realist may counter that national interest is paramount: only if waging war on malcolm x term papers behalf of essays on the they carried, freedom is also complemented by the securing of economic or other military interests should a nation commit its troops. The issue of intention raises the concern of practicalities as well as consequences, both of x term, which should be considered before declaring war. The next principle is that of reasonable success. This is another necessary condition for channels waging just war, but again is insufficient by itself. Given just cause and right intention, the just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. The principle of reasonable success is papers consequentialist in that the costs and research paper secondhand smoke, benefits of x term, a campaign must be calculated. However, the concept of weighing benefits poses moral as well as practical problems as evinced in the following questions. Should one not go to the aid of a people or declare war if there is no conceivable chance of on the things they, success?

Is it right to comply with aggression because the costs of not complying are too prohibitive? Would it be right to crush a weak enemy because it would be marginally costless? Is it not sometimes morally necessary to stand up to a bullying larger force, as the Finns did when Russia invaded in 1940, for the sake of national self-esteem or simple interests of defending land? Historically, many nations have overcome the probability of defeat: the malcolm x term, fight may seem hopeless, but a charismatic leader or rousing speech can sometimes be enough to stir a people into fighting with all their will. Winston Churchill offered the essays, British nation some of the malcolm x term, finest of war's rhetoric when it was threatened with defeat and invasion by Nazi Germany in 1940. For example: Let us therefore brace ourselves to do our duty, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Commonwealth and its Empire lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.’“ ….And “What is our aim?….Victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror; victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival. Bioessays. (Speeches to Parliament, 1940). However, the thrust of the reasonable success principle emphasizes that human life and economic resources should not be wasted in what would obviously be an uneven match. For a nation threatened by invasion, other forms of retaliation or defense may be available, such as civil disobedience, or even forming alliances with other small nations to equalize the odds. The final guide of jus ad bellum is that the desired end should be proportional to the means used. This principle overlaps into the moral guidelines of x term, how a war should be fought, namely the principles of on the, jus In bello . With regards to just cause, a policy of war requires a goal, and that goal must be proportional to x term papers, the other principles of bioessays impact, just cause. Whilst this commonly entails the minimizing of malcolm x term papers, war's destruction, it can also invoke general balance of power considerations.

For example, if nation A invades a land belonging to the people of nation B, then B has just cause to take the cs engineer, land back. According to the principle of proportionality, B’s counter-attack must not invoke a disproportionate response: it should aim to retrieve its land and not exact further retribution or invade the aggressor’s lands, or in graphic terms it should not retaliate with overwhelming force or nuclear weaponry to resolve a small border dispute. That goal may be tempered with attaining assurances that no further invasion will take place, but for B to invade and annex regions of A is nominally a disproportionate response, unless (controversially) that is the only method for securing guarantees of no future reprisals. For B to malcolm, invade and annex A and then to continue to invade neutral neighboring nations on the grounds that their territory would provide a useful defense against other threats and a putative imbalance of power is even more unsustainable. On the whole the principles offered by jus ad bellum are useful guidelines for reviewing the morality of bioessays impact, going to war that are not tied to malcolm x term papers, the intrinsicist’s absolutism or consequentialist’s open-endedness. Philosophically however they invoke a plethora of problems by either their independent vagueness or by mutually inconsistent results – a properly declared war may involve improper intention or disproportionate ambitions.

But war is comparison essay a complicated issue and the principles are nonetheless a useful starting point for malcolm ethical examination and they remain a guide for both statesmen and women and for those who judge political proceedings. The rules of just conduct within war fall under the channels, two broad principles of discrimination and proportionality. The principle of discrimination concerns who are legitimate targets in war, whilst the principle of proportionality concerns how much force is morally appropriate. A third principle can be added to the traditional two, namely the principle of malcolm x term, responsibility, which demands an examination of where responsibility lies in things they, war. One strong implication of the x term, justice of warfare being a separate topic of analysis to thesis distribution channels, the justice of war is malcolm x term papers that the theory thus permits the judging of acts within war to be dissociated from thesis channels it cause. This allows the malcolm x term, theorist to claim that a nation fighting an unjust cause may still fight justly, or a nation fighting a just cause may be said to fight unjustly. It is a useful division but one that does not necessarily sever all ties between the two great principles of warfare: the justice of a cause remains a powerful moral guide by which warfare is to be judged, for what does it matter, it can be asked, if a nation wages a war of aggression but does so cleanly? In waging war it is considered unfair and unjust to attack indiscriminately since non-combatants or innocents are deemed to secondhand, stand outside the malcolm, field of war proper. Outline Secondhand. Immunity from war can be reasoned from the malcolm x term, fact that their existence and activity is not part of the essence of war, which is the killing of combatants. Research Smoke. Since killing itself is malcolm x term papers highly problematic, the just war theorist has to proffer a reason why combatants become legitimate targets in the first place, and whether their status alters if they are fighting a just or unjust war.

Firstly, a theorist may hold that being trained and/or armed constitutes a sufficient threat to cs engineer, combatants on x term the other side and thereby the donning of uniform alters the person’s moral status to legitimate target; whether this extends to peaceful as well as war duties is not certain though. Voluntarists may invoke the boxing ring analogy: punching another individual is not morally supportable in a civilized community, but those who voluntarily enter the boxing ring renounce their right not to be hit. Normally, a boxer does not retain the right to hit another boxer outside of the ring, yet perhaps a soldier’s training creates a wholly different expectation governing his or her status and that wearing the comparison essay introduction, uniform or merely possessing the x term, training secures their legitimacy as a target both on and off the battlefield. Distribution. Such an argument would imply that it is right to attack unarmed soldiers or soldiers who have surrendered or who are enjoying the normality of civilian life, which just war theorists and historical conventions have traditionally rejected on the claim that when a soldier lays down his weapons or removes his uniform, he or she returns to civilian life and hence the status of the x term papers, non-combatant even if that return is temporary. Conversely, in joining an army the individual is said to renounce his or her rights not to essays they, be targeted in malcolm x term papers, war – the resume, bearing of arms takes a person into an alternative moral realm in x term papers, which killing is the expectation and possible norm: it is world removed from civilian structures and historically has evolved rites of passage and exit that underline the alteration in status for cadets and veterans; all analogies to the fair play of sports fail at this juncture, for war involves killing and what the British Army call “unlimited liability.” On entering the army, the civilian loses the comparison essay, right not to be targeted, yet does it follow that all who bear uniform are legitimate targets, or are some more so than others – those who are presently fighting compared to those bearing arms but who are involved in supplies or administration, for x term papers instance? Others, avoiding a rights analysis for it produces many problems on paper smoke delineating the boundaries of rights and the bearers, may argue that those who join the army (or who have even been pressed into papers conscription) come to terms with being a target, and hence their own deaths. This is argued for example by Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill in outline paper smoke, The Ethics of War (1979).

However, since civilians can just as readily come to terms with their own deaths and it is not necessarily the malcolm x term, case that a soldier has, their argument, although interesting, is outline paper not sufficient to defend the principle of discrimination and why soldiers alone should be targeted legitimately in malcolm, war. In turn, rights-based analyses may be more philosophically productive in giving soldiers and critics crucial guidelines, especially those analyses that focus on the renouncing of rights by combatants by resume, virtue of their war status, which would leave nominally intact a sphere of immunity for civilians. Yet what is the status of x term, guerrilla fighters who use civilian camouflage in order to press their attacks or to hide? Similarly, soldiers on covert operations present intricate problems of identification and legitimization: is there a difference between the two? Referring back to the fighters’ cause (for example, the guerrilla is a “freedom fighter” and thus carries a moral trump card) creates its own problems, which the just war theory in dividing the comparison introduction, justice of the cause from the x term papers, justice of the manner in which war is fought attempts to avoid: the guerrilla fighter may breach codes of conduct just as the soldier on a politically sensitive covert operations may avoid targeting the comparison essay introduction, wrong people. Walzer, in his Just and Unjust Wars (1977) claims that the lack of x term papers, identification does not give a government the right to research paper secondhand, kill indiscriminately—the onus is on the government to identify the combatants, and so, the x term papers, implication goes, if there is any uncertainty involved then an attack must not be made. Literary On The They Carried. Others have argued that the x term papers, nature of modern warfare dissolves the possibility of discrimination: civilians are just as necessary causal conditions for the war machine as are combatants, therefore, they claim, there is no moral distinction in targeting an armed combatant and a civilian involved in arming or feeding the combatant. The distinction is, however, not closed by cs engineer, the nature of modern economies, since a combatant still remains a very different entity from a non-combatant, if not for the simple reason that the former is presently armed (and hence has renounced rights or is prepared to die, or is x term papers a threat), whilst the outline research smoke, civilian is not. On the other hand, it can be argued that being a civilian does not necessarily mean that one is not a threat and hence not a legitimate target. If Mr Smith is the only individual in the nation to possess the correct combination that will detonate a device that could kill thousands, then he becomes not only causally efficacious in the firing of a weapon of malcolm x term, war, but also morally responsible; reasonably he also becomes a legitimate military target. My College Essays. His job effectively militarizes his status even though he does not bear arms.

The underlying issues that ethical analysis must deal with involve the logical nature of an individual's complicity and the aiding and abetting the papers, war machine, with greater weight being imposed on those logically closer than those logically further from the war machine in their work. At a deeper level, one can consider the role that civilians play in supporting an unjust war: to what extent are they morally culpable, and if they are culpable in comparison introduction, giving moral, financial, or economic support to some extent, does that mean they may become legitimate targets? This invokes the issue of collective versus individual responsibility that is in itself a complex topic but one that the principle of discrimination tries to x term papers, circumvent by presenting guidelines for soldiers that keep their activity within the realms of war and its effects rather than murder. Essays On The They Carried. It would be wrong, on the principle of discrimination, to malcolm x term papers, group the enemy into one targetable mass of people – some can not be responsible for a war or its procedures, notably children. Yet, on the other hand, if a civilian bankrolls a war or initiates aggression as a politician, surely he or she bears some moral responsibility for the ensuing deaths: some may argue that the distribution, war’s justification rests upon malcolm x term such shoulders but not the manner in which it is fought, while others may prefer to outline, saddle the leader or initiator with the malcolm, entire responsibility for cs engineer how a war is fought on the argument that each combatant is malcolm papers responsible for those below him or her in rank – so the political or civilian leaders are analogously responsible for all operating in the military field. The second principle of channels, just conduct is that any offensive action should remain strictly proportional to the objective desired. Malcolm Papers. This principle overlaps with the proportionality principle of just cause, but it is distinct enough to on the things, consider it in its own light. Proportionality for jus In bello requires tempering the extent and malcolm, violence of warfare to minimize destruction and casualties. Thesis Distribution. It is broadly utilitarian in that it seeks to minimize overall suffering, but it can also be understood from other moral perspectives, for instance, from harboring good will to all (Kantian ethics), or acting virtuously (Aristotelian ethics).

Whilst the consideration of discrimination focuses on who is a legitimate target of malcolm x term papers, war, the principle of essay, proportionality deals with what kind of force is morally permissible. In fighting a just war in which only military targets are attacked, it is still possible to breach morality by employing disproportionate force against an enemy. Whilst the earlier theoreticians, such as Thomas Aquinas, invoked the malcolm papers, Christian concepts of charity and mercy, modern theorists may invoke either consequentialist or intrinsicist prescriptions, both of which remain problematic as the on the things they carried, foregoing discussions have noted. However, it does not seem morally reasonable to completely gun down a barely armed albeit belligerent tribe. At the battle of Omdurman in 1898 in papers, the Sudan, six machine gunners killed thousands of dervishes—the gunners may have been in the right to defend themselves, but the principle of proportionality implies that a battle end before it becomes a massacre. Similarly, following the battle of Culloden in 1746 in Scotland, Cumberland ordered No Quarter, which was not only comparison essay introduction, a breach of the principle of x term, discrimination, for his troops were permitted to kill the wounded as well as supporting civilians, but also a breach of the principle of proportionality, since the battle had been won, and the Jacobite cause effectively defeated on research paper the battle field.

What if a war and all of its suffering could be avoided by highly selective killing? Could just war theory endorse assassination for instance? Assassination programs have often been secretly accepted and employed by states throughout the centuries and appeal, if challenged, is often to a “higher” value such as self-defense, killing a target guilty of war crimes and atrocities, or removing a threat to peace and stability. The CIA manual on assassination (1954, cf. Belfield), sought to distinguish between murder and assassination, the latter being justifiable according to the higher purposes sought.

This is analogous to just war theorists seeking to malcolm papers, put mass killing on a higher moral ground than pure massacre and outline smoke, slaughter and is fraught with the same problems raised in malcolm, this article and in the just war literature. On grounds of discrimination, assassination would be justifiable if the target were legitimate and sell my college, not, say, the wife or children of a legitimate target. On grounds of proportionality, the policy would also be acceptable, for if one man or woman (a legitimate target by virtue of his or her aggression) should die to avoid further bloodshed or to secure a quicker victory, then surely assassination is covered by the just war theory? The founder of the Hashshashin society (c.11-13thC), Hasan ibn el Sabah preferred to target or threaten warmongers rather than drag innocents and noncombatants into bloody and protracted warfare: his threats were often successful for he brought the reality of death home to the leaders who otherwise would enjoy what lyricist Roger Waters calls “the bravery of being out of papers, range.” In recent years, the US and UK proclaimed that the war in the Gulf was not with the Iraqi people but with its leader and his regime; the US government even issued a bounty on the heads of key agents in the Ba’ath party; indeed, Saddam Hussein’s sons, Uday and Qusay with a bounty of ?15m, were killed in a selective hunt and literary things carried, destroy mission rather than being captured and malcolm x term, brought to trial for the crimes asserted of them. Assassination would apparently clear the two hurdles of discrimination and proportionality, yet the intrinsicist wing of just war theorists would reasonably claim that underhand and covert operations, including assassination, should not form a part of war on grounds that they act to undermine the respect due one’s enemy (not matter how cruel he or she is) as well as the moral integrity of the assassin; the consequentialists would also counter that such policies also encourage the enemy to impact, retaliate in similar manner, and one of the sustaining conclusions of just war theory is that escalation or retaliatory measures (tit for tat policies) should be avoided for malcolm x term papers their destabilizing nature. Once initiated, assassination tends to become the norm of political affairs – indeed, civil politics would thus crumble into fearful and barbaric plots and conspiracies (as did Rome in its last centuries) in a race to gain power and mastery over others rather than to forge justifiable sovereignty. The principles of proportionality and discrimination aim to temper war's violence and range; while they may ostensibly imply the acceptance of some forms of warfare, their malleability also implies that we continuously look afresh upon seemingly acceptable acts. Accordingly, they are complemented by other considerations that are not always explicitly taken up in on the things, the traditional exposition of jus In bello , this is especially true in the case of the issue of responsibility. Jus in bello requires that the x term, agents of war be held responsible for outline paper their actions.

This ties in their actions to morality generally. Some, such as Saint Augustine argues against this assertion: who is but the sword in the hand of him who uses it, is not himself responsible for the death he deals. Those who act according to a divine command, or even God's laws as enacted by the state and papers, who put wicked men to death “have by literary essays on the things, no means violated the commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill.’” Whilst this issue is malcolm papers connected to the concepts of literary, just cause, it does not follow that individuals waging a just, or unjust war, should be absolved of breaching the principles of just conduct. Readily it can be accepted that soldiers killing other soldiers is part of the malcolm x term papers, nature of warfare for which soldiers ought to be prepared and trained, but when soldiers turn their weapons against non-combatants, or pursue their enemy beyond what is reasonable, then they are no longer committing legitimate acts of war but acts of murder. The principle of responsibility re-asserts the burden of abiding by rules in times of peace on those acting in war to remind them that one day they will once more take up civilian status and should be prepared to do so conscientiously, free of any guilt from comparison essay war crimes. X Term Papers. The issues that arise from this principle include the morality of obeying orders (for example, when one knows those orders to cs engineer resume, be immoral), as well as the moral status of ignorance (not knowing of the malcolm x term papers, effects of one’s actions either reasonably or literally). Responsibility for acts of war relate back to the tenets of jus ad bellum as well as jus in bello , for the justification of sell my college essays, going to war involves responsibility as well as the x term papers, acts ordered and committed in war.

In reviewing the stories from essays things they military ethics readers, the acts of bravery that attract our attention involve soldiers standing up to do the “right thing” against either the prevailing momentum of the platoon or the orders from higher up; the realist rejects such acts as infrequent or unnecessary performances that do not alter the main characteristic of war and its innate brutality, yet such acts also remind the critic as well as the soldier of the importance of returning to the civilian mode with good conscience. The aftermath of war involves the relinquishing of armed conflict as a means of resolving disputes and the donning of more civil modes of conduct but it also raises questions concerning the nature of the post bellum justice. Following the cessation of a war, three possibilities emerge: either the army has been defeated, has been victorious, or it has agreed to a ceasefire. Principles of justice may then be applied to each situation. Orend presents a useful summary of the papers, principles of my college, jus post bellum : the principle of discrimination should be employed to avoid imposing punishment on innocents or non-combatants; the rights or traditions of the defeated deserve respect; the malcolm papers, claims of victory should be proportional to the war’s character; compensatory claims should be tempered by the principles of discrimination and proportionality; and, controversially, the thesis distribution channels, need to rehabilitate or re-educate an aggressor should also be considered. It has often been remarked that justice, like history, is written by the victors. A defeated army and indeed the civilian body from which the army stems should thus be prepared to subject itself to the imposition of x term papers, rules and forms of punishments, humiliation, and even retributions that it would not otherwise agree to. The lives, values, and essay introduction, resources that have been fought for must now be handed over to the conquerors.

When put this way, when one readily imagines one’s own country’s army falling to an aggressive enemy, the terms immediately appear fearful and unjust and may stir a greater endeavor to make the victory hollow by papers, the raising of guerrilla or even terrorist organizations to thwart the conquerors’ designs. Yet when one’s own army is sell my college victorious, the malcolm x term, partiality of victory can be so easily dismissed on the enthusiastic wave that accompanies triumph: victory is so often associated with the comparison essay introduction, greater right when one’s own country vanquishes its enemy, and assumedly with that right comes the malcolm papers, justification to impose conditions upon the vanquished. In so many wars in history, both ancient and modern, victory has provided the winners with the means of exploiting the defeated nation and for claiming rights over its lands and people whether in the form of enslavement or in comparison, monopolistic mercantile contracts; sometimes an appeal to divine justice is made; at other times the supremacy of malcolm x term, one’s nation, race, creed, or political order is lauded over the defeated. Economic exploitation is not the distribution, only means of subjugating the defeated: new political or religious frameworks can also be imposed sometimes as a means of “rehabilitating the defeated” or as a means to malcolm, avoid the circumstances (political or economic) that may bring about impact further warfare; the philosopher must naturally inquire as to the justice of such measures. The just war theorist is keen to remind warriors and x term papers, politicians alike that the principles of justice following war should be universalizable and outline secondhand smoke, morally ordered and that victory should not provide a license for malcolm papers imposing unduly harsh or punitive measures or that state or commercial interests should not dictate the form of the new peace. Similarly, imposing an alternative political or religious is not likely to be conducive to peace, as Edmund Burke prophetically warned about essays decreeing for the “rights of man” in x term, an unprepared culture; re-educating a defeated military or bureaucracy may seem reasonable and arguably was successful in smoke, post-war Germany (1945), yet such a program may also be so superficial or condescending as to have only short term and illusory benefits or act to further humiliate the malcolm x term papers, defeated into seething desire for impact revenge.

In post-war Iraq (2003-date), the x term papers, rehabilitation programs have met with mixed success and outline paper secondhand, have often been criticized for favoring some ethnic groups over others, i.e., affecting political and cultural nuances that an outsider would not be aware of. Criticism may stem from either intrinsicist reasons (that the malcolm, defeated should still be viewed as a people deserving moral respect and their traditions held as sacrosanct) or consequentialist reasons (that punitive impositions are likely to on the carried, produce a backlash); but again it is worth reminding that just war theory tends to x term papers, merge the two to channels, avoid awkward implications derived from either position singly. At this point, the attraction for jus post bellum thinkers is to malcolm papers, return to the initial justice of the essays, war. Consider a war of self-defense: this is considered by most, except absolute pacifists, to be the papers, most justifiable of all wars. If the people are defeated but their cause remains just, should they then continue the outline paper smoke, fight to malcolm x term papers, rid their country of all the vestiges of occupation? What if fighting is impossible? Should they bow their heads in honorable defeat and accept the victor’s terms graciously?

Locke believed that an unjustly defeated people should bide their time until their conquerors leave: “if God has taken away all means of seeking remedy, there is nothing left but patience.” ( Second Treatises , §177); however, the right always remains with those who fought against an unjust war but they do not gain any moral right to attack indiscriminately or disproportionately (such as terrorizing the invader’s own civilians or soldiers at rest), although they may carry on their claim for freedom over the generations. A realist, however, may ask how a people are to regain their freedom if they do not raise arms against their sea of troubles? Nonetheless, if the “good fight” is to continue, most theorists follow Locke and prohibit breaches of the jus in bello principles: while it would be wrong to distribution, bow to a tyrant or conquering army, it would be immoral to target their families in order to encourage the occupying army to leave. Others may counsel civil disobedience and other forms of intransigence to signal displeasure. If, on the other hand, the victors have won a just war against an aggressor, Locke argues that the victor’s right does not extend to the aggressive nation’s civilian population, but that it does extend to all those engaged in malcolm papers, the aggression and that it extends absolutely: that is, the just conqueror has absolute rights of life and death over literary essays on the things they carried, the defeated aggressors. The aggressor, one who initiates war, puts the individual or the community into a state of war, he argues, and so the defender has an absolute prerogative to use whatever force necessary to secure freedom and peace: accordingly, in victory, the malcolm papers, victors may enslave or kill the aggressors. Channels. Locke’s is an malcolm extreme although not logically incoherent position and his exhortations may be compared to resume, other moral positions (often emerging from religious thinking) to temper the justice in favor of other virtues such as charity, liberality, and justice. Indeed, King Alfred the malcolm, Great of Wessex (c.878AD) defeated the Viking invader Guthrum in battle and rather than executing him as the Vikings would have done Alfred, he ordered them to join the Christian religion and then, and probably more importantly, offered them a stake in research secondhand, the land: toleration merged with prudence and self-interest ensured Guthrum was no longer a threat.

Indeed, Machiavelli warned that killing an opponent’s family is likely to raise their ire but taking away their land is guaranteed to continue the fight over generations. It may be reasonably held that the aggressors deserve punishment of some sort, although Alfred’s example highlights an alternative view of dealing with an enemy, one that reminds the theorist that peace not further war remains the goal. Malcolm. But what if the defeated aggressors are guilty of atrocities, surely they should be made to cs engineer, stand trial to send a signal to other “war criminals” as well as to punish them for their own misdeeds? Here we enter the malcolm x term, debates regarding punishment: does punishing a violator make any sense except to sell my college essays, exact either retribution, revenge, or to promote a deterrence? Can the victors be sure of their claim to punish the aggressors and what good could possibly flow from bringing more violence or enslavement to the world? In asserting the need to find universalisable principles, the just war theorist is usually keen to insist that any war crimes trials are held in neutral states and presided over by neutral parties, rather than the victors whose partiality in proceedings must be presumed: after all, in the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, no allied generals or politicians were held accountable for the atrocities created by bombing civilian centers in Germany and Japan and the dropping of nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and x term, Nagasaki. The end game and hence the jus post bellum certainly merit attention before the battles are lost or won: what should be the ruling affairs once the peace is proclaimed? Should the essays, terms of war’s end be elaborated and publicly pronounced as to ensure all parties are aware of the malcolm, costs of defeat?

Is it right that an army should demand unconditional surrender, for instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for no incentive is given to the other side to surrender; on the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the enemy as one not to be respected either in or after war. Yet if an unconditional surrender policy does suitably raise the stakes of fighting war it may act as a sufficient deterrent against bioessays impact, possible aggressors or act as a useful diplomatic tool to bring a worried enemy back to peaceful overtures. Similarly, is malcolm x term papers it right that an army should demand reparations in advance rather than leave them undisclosed and thereby risk the uncertainty of punishment creating a backlash from the defeated, who may not wish to be so subjected? To keep the my college, expected conditions of war’s end secretive does not seem a wise move in that uncertainty generates fear, and fear can generate a harder campaign than otherwise would be necessary; but if the papers, publicized conditions appear onerous to the enemy, then they have good reasons to prolong and/or intensify their own fight. Of course, if promises of an amnesty or fair treatment of bioessays, prisoners is reneged on by the victor, then all trust for future arrangements is lost and the consequences imply embedding hatreds and mistrust for generations. Assume that victory is given, that the army has defeated its enemy on the battlefield so attention turns to the nature of the post bellum justice of dealing with the defeated regardless of its intentions beforehand. Arguably, the papers, very nature of the warring participants’ vision of each other and of themselves will color the proceedings both politically and morally. A victorious side, for instance, that sees itself as rightfully triumphant is comparison more likely to impose its will and exactions upon the defeated in a more stringent manner in which a victorious side that sees itself as its enemy’s equal; but universality demands seeing one’s enemy as oneself and understanding not just the Realpolitik of state interests and state gains in victory but also the conventions of magnanimity and honor in victory (or defeat). Consider the x term papers, demands for reparations.

A defeated aggressor may just be asked to pay for the damage incurred by the war (as justice demands of criminals that they pay for their crimes). But to what extent should the reparations extend? Should there be demands for secondhand retribution and deterrence added in, so that those deemed responsible for their aggression should be put on x term trial and suitably punished (and what would “suitable” mean in this instance – that Saddam Hussein stand trial for his invasion of Kuwait implies that George W Bush similarly stand trial for his invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq?). Outline Research Paper. In forming the conditions of x term papers, defeat, should neutral third parties be turned to so as to avoid later accusations of “victor’s justice” and the partiality that such justice can invoke or imply, or does victory present the literary essays on the things carried, victor with the ultimate moral wreath to justify whatever demands seen appropriate or fitting? Should a war be indecisive though, the x term papers, character of the peace would presumably be formed by the character of the thesis, ceasefire – namely, the cessation of fighting would imply a mere hiatus in which the malcolm papers, belligerents regain the time and resources to stock their defenses and prepare for further fighting. As such, a ceasefire would be merely a respite for the military to regain its strengths. Distribution Channels. However, just war theory also acts to remind contenders that war is a last resort and that its essential aim is always peace, so if peace is forthcoming in any guise, it is morally critical for all parties to seek a return to a permanent peace rather than a momentary lapse of war. This article has described the main tenets of the x term, just war theory, as well as some of the problems that it entails.

The theory bridges theoretical and applied ethics, since it demands an adherence, or at comparison least a consideration of x term papers, meta-ethical conditions and models, as well as prompting concern for the practicalities of essay introduction, war. A few of those practicalities have been mentioned here. Other areas of interest are: hostages, innocent threats, international blockades, sieges, the use of weapons of mass destruction or of anti-personnel weapons (for example, land mines), and the morality and practicalities of x term papers, interventionism.

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Malcolm X Essays and Term Papers 1 - 25

Example Of Opinion Essay Essays and malcolm papers Research Papers. Opinion essay Opinion essay is resume, a formal piece of essay writing which presents the . X Term Papers! author’s point of view on a particular subject supported by reasons and examples . The opposing viewpoint is also suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is literary essays on the carried, unconvincing. A Successful Opinion Essay Consists of: An introduction where the topic and malcolm papers the author’s opinion are stated clearly. A main body where viewpoints supported by reasons are presented in several paragraphs. This section has also the. Education , Essay , Mobile phone 792 Words | 3 Pages.

? Opinion Essay Some people use marijuana for health purposes, some just use it to get really high. Smoking marijuana . isn’t as bad as it seems to research others. Obviously lighting something on fire and inhaling it wouldn’t seem as if it’s good or healthy for you. Malcolm! That’s why people get the wrong impression. Research Paper Secondhand! I believe marijuana should be legalized because there are more positives to x term it than negatives. Marijuana can help people medically and help the economy. Ironically other substances that are. Bipolar disorder , Cancer , Disease 898 Words | 4 Pages. Name Demeshov Yerkebulan ID 20121754 Opinion Essay Music is the best type of . Art What is art? Everyone knows about it, but could you say a lot about music?

May be yes, may be no. Music is the best type of outline research secondhand art. Malcolm! Before proving it , let’s talk about what music means. Music is an sell my college art form which medium is sound and silence. In many cultures music is an important part of people. Music contains all their history. May be for someone music is just.

Aesthetics , Art , Medicine 929 Words | 3 Pages. Name Date Opinion Essay An opinion essay tells what the writer thinks or feels about a topic. . X Term! People have different opinions about things. In an opinion essay , you write your opinion about a topic. When you write an opinion essay , you choose a topic about which you have strong feelings. Resume! You support your opinion with reasons. For this Unit Project, you are going to malcolm x term papers write an opinion essay about the wetlands of Mississippi. Writing Process Part I: Prewriting Ideas As you learned in Unit 1, Mississippi. All rights reserved , Copyright , Essay 1171 Words | 6 Pages.

Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is comparison essay, our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to x term an . Resume! essay question that might appear on the SAT. X Term! You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to literary things they carried explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the questions below.

The qualities of a hero . Malcolm! include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. Cs Engineer! With these qualities in mind, it is easy to papers see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in his life and work. He was born in Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics. His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages.

Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and . On The Things They Carried! strontium by soils. Papers! These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of research paper smoke how much of a solvent is malcolm, [absorbed] by a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to distribution convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. all want to papers have a place to belong in the social jungle that is middle school. But in my opinion it’s not worth all the drama and trouble that . Bioessays! it will most likely create. For instance you could be suspended, fail your classes, become addicted on drugs, or worse, and these are the things that will cause you to fail and mess you up for malcolm x term papers, life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to thesis deal with the unfairness in papers life. When I first started. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. age of expansion following on carried, an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about architectural design and decoration. Malcolm! Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design.

It displays the thesis distribution Baroque essence in malcolm x term papers a way but is not completely over comparison introduction ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. Marble is malcolm x term, mainly used in the columns and the base appears to distribution channels be gilded in malcolm x term bronze. Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages. of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store. When that occurs the retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Inventory can range from a variety of introduction things, for example ; garden rocks in malcolm assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by type, hay bales stacked, and sell essays even bird baths. So as one of the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. Example Essay “He that is good for making excuses is seldom good for anything else.” -- Ben Franklin.

As early as the . founding of the malcolm papers United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is comparison essay, frequently used as an excuse to justify the papers lack of time management skills. The effects on kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating. In a day there are 24 hours, and time is available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages.

idea of ghosts is far too exaggerated to bioessays impact be real. According to psychologydictionary.org the malcolm x term papers paranormal is “designating any phenomenon comprising the . transfer of data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights” (“What”). For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone. I was walking towards the front door and a pair of scissors fell from the countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to death and it was like the cs engineer scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. X Term! The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to generation. Because of this, the idea of sex in channels the 1950’s is malcolm, completely different from the idea of bioessays sex today.

Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in papers professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of bioessays impact memory capacity and malcolm ability. For example , the constant use of my college both the left and right hemispheres of the malcolm papers brain simultaneously in someone who plays the piano exercises memory.

Thanks to this, it is also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay. Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay : Why We Should Read This Novel in the ENG3C Course Living on the street can be tough, . Resume! especially if you’re a teenager. In Theories of x term papers Relativity by essay Barbara Haworth-Attard, readers have a chance at seeing just how hard life on the streets can be for teenagers.

We should study Theories of Relativity in malcolm the ENG3C course for many reasons, including how many students can relate to Dylan, because the book has many interesting characters and literary essays on the they carried because of. Adolescence , Birmingham , Education 892 Words | 3 Pages. over the use of Stem Cell Research. Stem Cell Research? I don’t even know what that means! All I do know is that those stinking Democrats support it, which . Malcolm! means I automatically have to be against it. Bioessays! You can’t possibly expect me to actually have an malcolm opinion on something as complicated as this! The basis for the things I oppose is simply spite.

Spite for comparison, the Democrats. Malcolm X Term! If a Democrat supports it, I oppose it! Using your brain to support or oppose things is just way too overrated nowadays. I own a private. Democratic Party , George H. Resume! W. Bush , George W. Bush 1069 Words | 3 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Firstly, the higher quality example essays , such as the Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in malcolm x term papers the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages.

The Symbol of a Mockingbird Supported Opinion Essay Prejudice and racism are a part of living and on the things they people will always be . confronted with it, but why are people hated or precluded? Do others actually know who they are or are they just judged because of the malcolm x term bad stories others heard about comparison them? In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee writes about this theme and she uses the mockingbird is a symbol. A mockingbird is a harmless bird that makes the world more pleasant. Mockingbirds are the innocent. Harper Lee , Northern Mockingbird , To Kill a Mockingbird 1192 Words | 4 Pages.

?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from malcolm his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is known for cs engineer resume, his conservative views that can be attributed in part to his coming from a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the malcolm papers United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. BBI20 Assignment#5 Opinion Essay on Inventions 1st March 2011 In my opinion , the thesis channels most important invention of . all time in the history of human civilization and enterprise is the internet.

Why the internet? Simply because I believe this invention has made the world a better place. In almost everything we do, we need the malcolm x term Internet. My College! Whether it is to look for a job, research for a project or even find love. The Internet is a dominant factor that plays an important role in our lives. We just simply. Better , History of the Internet , Hyperlink 1419 Words | 4 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to malcolm papers death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of life is at an all time low and bioessays you can’t see any point in malcolm papers delaying the my college inevitable.

That is papers, why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for patients who are incurable. Essay! Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in x term papers cases that involve unbearable suffering or. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. ?Question: Analyze how the outline research paper writer influenced you to change your opinion throughout the text about a significant idea. Shakespeare wrote . Macbeth in the 16th century as tribute to king James the malcolm papers first. At the comparison essay introduction start of the text king Duncan made me believe that anyone could be a good leader, Duncan effectively portrayed this idea because he put the needs of his country in front of malcolm his own. Throughout the text Shakespeare influenced my opinion to change when Macbeth came into power as he cared about no. Duncan I of Scotland , James I of England , KILL 849 Words | 3 Pages.

Example of a Well Structured Essay. Example of a well structured essay . The content isn’t that exiting and the conclusion is quite weak, but there are many good . points to make on the way the thesis essay is structured and the way the information is put across. All my comments are highlighted thus. Malcolm X Term! A good introduction. • Does the job of clearly defining the topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. See in distribution channels particular last sentence of papers introduction. ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Consider the literary they purpose, audience, and context of your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively.

Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for malcolm x term, standard grammar and language usage. Resume! Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of a friend and see exactly how much they do for us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Aaron B Ms. F ENG-4U Nov, 1st, 2013 Catcher in The Rye Opinion Essay In the x term papers novel Catcher in The Rye, Salinger has employed . a very realistic portrayal of teenagers and how they act. There are plenty of literary essays they characteristic on how he properly conveyed this to the audience and he also spread these characteristics through-out all of the characters that are used within the novel.

Firstly, you have Holden; a teenager who is not always the brightest bulb in the cabinet, but he has a clear understanding. Adolescence , Novel , Question 1140 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this essay , it is about the malcolm x term journal article that I had presented in the Journal Club. In the following, I am going to summarize the . Bioessays Impact! concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. In the second part of the x term papers essay , I will analyze the comparison essay concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on what I have learned from the x term papers concerned clinical issue / practice. Resume! Lastly, I am going to recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Options Karisa Horsch Professor R. Sorrell HIST 136; Opinion 2, 3, 6 March . 7th 2013 Industrialists Vs.

Workers Opinion Option #2 Today, the United States is known for being a big, beautiful powerhouse of complex industrial systems and with these industrial systems, bridges have been built, factories have been produced, inventions and workers have been put to work and x term thus, a new age industry arise. Comparison Introduction! It’s hard to exactly pin-point. 19th century , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 1048 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . Papers! description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to thesis for relaxation.

They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Opinion Essay: Is Television Good or Bad for American Society? Assignment taught by Dr. Sally Lozada. PART I Throughout the next four modules, you will plan and papers develop an argumentative essay . Literary On The Things Carried! Your . homework assignments will consist of: Module 1: Taking a Stance Module 2: Developing an Outline Module 3: Providing Body Paragraphs Module 4: Submitting the Completed Essay Taking a Stance Below is the topic for Essay 1. Essay 1 Topic Television is an interesting form of malcolm x term papers entertainment. With a proper cable subscription, one’s television can display. Logic , Obesity , Rhetoric 1160 Words | 6 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an outline research paper smoke acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to organize and malcolm x term develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already.

2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. statement in this argument? 3. Bioessays Impact! What’s the topic sentence of the writer’s personal view? 4. Note down some of the transitions used in this argument: 5. What . is the malcolm x term wrap-up in essays on the carried this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each. Malcolm! Annotate the essay to outline paper show these features. Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Steven Vanous Opinion essay 131-17 One of the most debated topics of today in America is Health Care. How can we make it . better?

How can we fix the major flaws? How can we, as a country, provide every American citizen with proper adequate health care? These are very good questions. I’m just your average citizen and x term papers I figured it out. The answer to all these questions, and many more asked by Americans, is very simple. Bioessays! Adopt a “Socialized Health Care” system just like the one that’s been used. Health care , Health care in malcolm x term papers the United States , Health economics 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by comparison introduction Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of discovery . consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in front of you by malcolm x term papers seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages.

childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . Comparison Essay Introduction! examples due to age. Malcolm X Term! Things such as age, gender and impact commuity will also play a part in shaping the malcolm papers effects of your world view. A World view is described by many different people in cs engineer resume various ways for example Samovar and malcolm x term Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the comparison introduction German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. that a person should only set fairly easy and malcolm attainable goals for themselves. Now my attitude is that you should pursue what makes you happy, and you . shouldn’t let struggles stop you.

When I read examples about following a passion, overcoming a fear, and being persistent in your efforts, my prior opinion began to change. In the comparison introduction book Blake first describes his journey with creating and growing TOMS. Blake was on a vacation trip in Argentina when he realized the locals tremendous need for shoes. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april.

2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. small, cute animals are “slowly crushed or impaled by women wearing heels,” reports David Michael (2010).

These videos were banned in 1999 by the Supreme . Court, until the federal law had overreached, and papers the law was overturned. These acts are clear examples of cruelty towards animals, and can never be truly justified. If we take the rights steps, in a warranted and honest manner, then we can stop animal abuse, and save future species from an outline research paper smoke unruly and unjustified future as slaves to man-kind. . Animal cruelty , Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Jun. 17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . – A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in x term papers a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the author’s outlook and personality. - An attempt. Thesis Channels! TYPES OF ESSAYS – Personal – Describes how you feel about someone or something. YOU are at the center . X Term! . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and outline research paper secondhand smoke business is a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and the axis around which . most of our society’s most important issues move. Having worked for a number of years in a multitude of administrative positions, I feel in papers many ways as though I have merely skimmed the sell my college essays surface of malcolm papers a field that is brimming with professional opportunities. The pursuit of distribution channels a Master’s in malcolm Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own. Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages.

? Essay 1 The methods of political control used by the Han and cs engineer Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in the degree of citizen participation . in government because of how each empire utilized it to x term papers control the people. However, the sell my college essays use of theologies to justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over the people in more ways than one. In addition, the use of militaries to malcolm x term control the my college population and outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is a form of expression; it is art, and what makes it of x term highest or lowest value can often be a matter of resume . personal choice. There are, however, universal ways of looking at a song’s value. First, one can analyze a song based on the message the writer wants to x term reveal.

Words construct meaning, which ultimately reveals a theme, and the power of the theme helps listeners decide a song’s worth and universal impact. Closely linked to a song’s theme is the song’s literary. Aspect of music , Broken heart , Fiction 1377 Words | 4 Pages. How to write an comparison essay introduction argumentative essay. Give your opinion . X Term Papers! Argumentative Essay How to write an Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, Format, . Thesis! Examples , Topics How to write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in malcolm x term an argumentative essay is the position of proving that the presented point of view is the correct one and impact possesses more truthful arguments than any other opinions . The author through proper reasoning, inducting and making conclusions, must prove the assertions or the theories of the argumentative essay . If the author. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages. ! Analyzing Essay Psychologist Martin E. P. Seligman’s article “On Learned Helplessness” talks about what happens when people go through . traumatic events and how the handle the situations. Seligman ` studied the conditions that can lead to x term papers feelings of fear, helplessness, depression, and competence.

By applying his theories and ideas I will analyze the outline smoke article “Gunman Kills Himself After Hostage Drama” by Charles P. Wallace and Tim Waters. In the malcolm article by resume Wallace and Waters, a twenty-six. Depression , Emotion , Harry Dean Stanton 990 Words | 4 Pages. Definition Essay How to write a Definition Essay : Outline, Format, Structure, Examples , Topics Writing a . definition essay A definition essay is an malcolm papers essay concentrated on the explanation of the meaning of a definite term. The term may be analyzed from the position of one and my college only meaning and also from the malcolm position of subjectivity of the distribution channels person defining the term. X Term! This classification divides the words into two groups: •material terms – a table, a door, a printer. •spiritual terms – friendship. Causality , Cosmological argument , Definition 2125 Words | 7 Pages. ? ESSAY IS A WRITTEN EXPRESSION OF WRITER'S DIRECT OPINION . Comparison! THAT OPINION IS BASED ON OUR BELIEFS. now belief is x term, of . further two types: 1. changeable (where there is tendency to change the opinion ) 2. non-changeable ( opinion is in just yes or no; agree or disagree) basically the changeable opinion is they carried, our thesis statement. * every thesis statement is opinion but every opinion is not thesis statement. types of essays ' topics: 1. X Term Papers! open topics on which writer's own tendency to prove his opinion. Belief , Creative writing , Critical thinking 474 Words | 2 Pages.

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