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Mina And Lucy In Dracula Essays and Research Papers. ?In the novel, Dracula , by Bram Stoker, we are introduced to essays, two specific ladies that are essential to the essence of this gothic, horror . novel. Essays With! These two women are Mina Harker and Lucy Westenra. The purpose for essays, these two women was for Stoke to clearly depict the psychology essays with, two types of women: the innocent and the contaminated. Essays! In the beginning, the women were both examples of the stereotypical flawless women of and antithesis, this time period.
However, as the rutgers, novel seems to progress, major differences are bound to arise. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1133 Words | 3 Pages. Mina Harker; A Strong Character A strong character is one who possesses many qualities such as being selfless, courageous and sacrificial. . Research Step! Dracula written by Bram Stoker portrays the rutgers essays, young and witty Mina Harker. She is the best example to fit the description of westboro baptist, a strong character. Mina starts off as a young school mistress who is engaged. As the rutgers essays, plot progresses, her normal life changes and she is faced with many challenges that she overcomes, that show that she is the strongest personality. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1112 Words | 3 Pages.
Explore the writing the first of a paper, Presentation of rutgers, Mina Harker in in, Dracula Explore the presentation of Mina Most critics would safely agree that “ Dracula ” is a novel that dramatically presents the role . of the female in Victorian society. Bram Stoker was writing this novel at the end of the nineteenth century when Victorian women were placed into three distinct categories, all three relating to their sexual behaviour. She was either a virgin, so pure and innocent; a mature wife or mother; or if she was neither of these she was considered a “loose woman” and so was neglected. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 827 Words | 3 Pages. woman chose to stay single, as she would be pitied and dubbed a “whore”. Lucy Westenra is rutgers essays one of the main characters in the novel, . Dracula by Bram Stoker. Lucy is a beautiful young lady whose innocence and virtuous being draws three suitors to her. Although, this portrayed innocence is and antithesis in not the only thing that is drawing these men towards her. Lucy has a sexual appeal to her personality, much different than her best friend Mina Murray and the typical Victorian woman.
This sense of sexual desire will. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 964 Words | 3 Pages. Dracula Bram Stoker's Dracula is one of the most renowned British novels of all time. It has left its marks on many aspects . of literature and film. Many thematic elements are present throughout the story and have been interpreted in many ways. Stoker uses his characters to manifest the themes that he wishes to imply. Three themes that present themselves throughout the book are the theme of Christian Redemption, science and technology, and rutgers, sexual expression. Christian Redemption is shown. Abraham Van Helsing , Dracula , John Seward 1607 Words | 4 Pages. ‘in Dracula, Lucy Represents a 19th Century Ideal of critical othello, Femininity, Whereas Mina Embodies a More Modern View of the Role of rutgers, Women’.
‘In Dracula , Lucy represents a 19th century ideal of femininity, whereas Mina embodies a more modern view of the . Critical Essays Othello! role of women’. To what extent do you agree? Stoker’s presentation of the essays, differences between Mina and how to, Lucy provokes the debate about whether Lucy is rutgers essays intended to represent a traditional female role, with Mina being her modern counterpart. A typical depiction of life for a 19th century woman involved staying at home to critical othello, look after their families; whereas, 20th century women secured. 19th century , Bram Stoker , Dracula 1627 Words | 5 Pages. Novel Dracula Bram Stoker, the author of rutgers essays, Dracula as well as a Victorian man, includes religious elements in the book which . explains the westboro church, qualities of good and evil in the Victorian era London. Characters in the novel are Count Dracula , Jonathan Harker, Quincy Morris, Dr. Van Helsing, Mina Harker, and Lucy . Jonathan on his way to Dracula’s castle is the rutgers, first character introduced. He is the husband of Mina , and the other men help him tremendously to save the town from the evil Dracula . Lucy is a dilapidated. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Damnation As several characters note in the novel, a person's physical life is the first of a of secondary importance to the person's eternal life, which can be . Essays! jeopardized if the person is made evil by a vampire like Dracula . Professor Van Helsing says, when he is critical explaining why they must kill the vampire Lucy , But of the rutgers essays, most blessed of all, when this now Un-Dead be made to rest as true dead, then the baptist church, soul of the poor lady whom we love shall again be free.
Even characters that are of essays, questionable goodness. Abraham Van Helsing , Bram Stoker , Count Dracula 2087 Words | 6 Pages. ?My first posting East-West conflict and how to help others, anxiety relating to essays, imperial western power is at the heart of Dracula . The main male . characters belong to different age groups, education levels and professions. Mr Harker is a solicitor who offers assistance with purchasing properties. Arthur Holmwood later acquires the title Lord Goldaming. Van Helsing a Dutch physician and Professor is well versed in the supernatural but employs the guide paper step write, Scientific method. Dr. John Seward, a psychiatrist and a head. Abraham Van Helsing , Dracula , John Seward 745 Words | 3 Pages. Redemption in Dracula ” she examines the theme of the stark contrasts between pure and unclean.
Pollution in the sense the writer was going for . does not mean landfills and gas guzzlers, but when the rutgers essays, unclean taints the pure. Going beyond the surface definition, the book Dracula has many instances of contrasting values surrounding the thoughts of purity. The ideas of good and evil, life and death, new and old, and civilization and savagery are examined throughout the psychology, novel. Dracula as a whole is. Abraham Van Helsing , Bram Stoker , Dracula 913 Words | 3 Pages. English 9 20 March 2009 Dracula MLA Expository Essay The novel Dracula is definitely portrays a strong example of a . gothic novel. Dracula also has all of the characteristics of a gothic novel as well. Bram Stoker’s Dracula has all of the classic elements of essays, a Gothic novel. The setting of the novel is a dark crumbling castle, the tone is critical essays mysterious, there is a villainous character, and there is the sense that the hero is struggling against an inescapable fate.
Dracula is novel in which shows. Abraham Van Helsing , Bram Stoker , Dracula 870 Words | 3 Pages. Lucy Westerna and Mina Harker are the only two female characters Bram Stoker describes in detail in the novel . Dracula . Lucy and Mina are two of the three characters that the reader sees becoming a vampire, and both characters are narrators. It is clear that these two play a very important role in the novel. Their actions have a huge effect on the way the novel unfolds.
Lucy and Mina have many differences and similarities in rutgers essays, representing the others essay, Victorian women. Lucy represents all of the rutgers essays, evil traits. Count Dracula , Dracula , Mina Harker 1057 Words | 3 Pages. “To what extent do the themes of critical essays othello, Dracula reflect the social, cultural and historical context in which the novel is set? “ In one’s novel, . themes successfully assist to highlight the social, cultural and historical context in which can impact the rutgers, experience one can face. In ‘ Dracula ’ by Bram Stoker we are confronted by three protagonist who are un aware of the fact that vampires are lurking around, they experience various attacks and shocking discoveries which leads them to a new concept on the world. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1445 Words | 4 Pages. Texts such as the novel Dracula , and help essay, the film Interview with the Vampire, are often shaped by the values and attitudes within society at rutgers, the . particular time in which it was created. As a result, the context plays a major role in the construction of a text. How To Essay! In Dracula , a novel in epistolary format set and published in 1897 by essays Bram Stoker, not only do the and antithesis in, concepts of sexuality, religion, family, technology, class and rutgers essays, gender roles reflect the way they were viewed in the Victorian era, but the actual. British Empire , Dracula , Neo-Victorian 1574 Words | 4 Pages.
Dracula , by Bram Stoker, is a classic gothic novel, originally published in 1897. The novel focuses on a group of men following and, . ultimately, killing a vampire named Dracula . The readers learn fairly early in and antithesis, the book that vampires have supernatural powers and limitations they face. When Jonathan Harker, the first character met in the novel, goes to Dracula’s castle, he witnesses most of Dracula’s strengths and weaknesses. A few chapters in, the rutgers, readers meet a bug-eating mental patient named Renfield. Bram Stoker , Count Dracula , Dracula 909 Words | 3 Pages. Stoker’s novel, Dracula is a piece of help, gothic literature in which Count Dracula inflicts grief and pain upon mortal men by . attempting to charm and steal their women, eventually turning them into vampires. Stoker portrays women as unintelligent beings who will follow the Count because of essays, his apparent charm, strength, and help, stereotypical beauty. The Count is a dark, beautiful, and essays, mysterious man, and this covers up the evil that he has committed and the amount of in, lives he has taken. In Dracula , Stoker uses. Dracula , Female , Gender 1481 Words | 4 Pages.
Analysis of Gothic Texts Dracula (Novel) Bibliographical Information: Composer: Bram Stocker Published Text Name: Dracula . Date Published: May 1897 Publisher Details: First published by Archibald Constable and Company 1897 This edition Published in Penguin Classic 1993 Question 1: Describe the rutgers essays, subject matter, i.e. Westboro Baptist Church Essay! explain what the text is rutgers about. Critical Essays! Dracula is an appealing text that has been loved for many years because one of its main themes is rutgers essays a great human conflict, the fight between good. Bram Stoker , Count Dracula , Dracula 1112 Words | 3 Pages. Dracula Summary Dracula is an westboro baptist, epistolary novel, meaning that is composed from letters, journal and diary entries, telegrams, . and newspaper clippings. Jonathan Harker, Mina Murray (later Mina Harker), and Dr. Seward write the largest contributions to the novel‹although the writings of Lucy Westenra and Abraham Van Helsing constitute some key parts of the rutgers essays, book.
The novel is meant to have a slightly journalistic feel, as it is a harrowing account supposedly written by the people who witnessed the. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1037 Words | 3 Pages. Evil has long been expressed through movies and books throughout history. Batman beating the Joker, Spiderman banishing the step write, Green Goblin, and Arthur and the . guys defeating Dracula are all examples of literature based on the theme Good vs. Evil. In Bram Stokers, Dracula , Jonathan Harker represents the good, while the vampire, Dracula , represents the evil antagonist. One thing these four pieces share is that evil never fully overcomes good. They all start off as regular human beings, or on the good side. Count Dracula , Dracula , Gothic fiction 785 Words | 3 Pages. in both the film and the novel, but major alterations are made in the film to make it more exciting, attention grasping, and addicting. Dracula . by Bram Stoker is just another novel made into the film Bram Stoker’s Dracula by Francis Ford Coppola.
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In modern society, unexplained theories such as . superstition and religion are considered dubious and aberrant. For example, myths and the supernatural are considered irrational because one can’t prove it mechanically or scientifically. Essays! In Dracula , most of the characters are modern people who are narrow minded and clueless about the reality of the world. Critical Othello! As Jonathan, Mina , Van Helsing, Lucy , and Dr.Seward. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1217 Words | 3 Pages. Elements of Romanticism in Stoker's Dracula. monster in his novel, Dracula . Stoker uses a series of letters and rutgers, journal entries to tell the story form a first person point of view. The . Count, for whom the book is named, seems to be invincible to mere man.
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Bram Stoker , Count Dracula , Dracula 1250 Words | 4 Pages. Dracula: Perception on Death and Illness during the Victorian Era. ?Eun-Ah Lee Professor L. Tromly ENGL 1200 A01 5 April 2013 The Effect of Supernatural Aspects on the Victorian Society Bram Stoker's . Dracula , presents an interesting perspective on death and illness in the Victorian period. Rutgers Essays! This can be viewed as a creativity on Stoker's part, or as a form of religious or social commentary on his changing era. There are several flaws presented throughout the novel as the plot unfolds, which are: characters in the novel dismiss the old traditional belief of the. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1794 Words | 5 Pages. An Analysis of Bram Stoker’s Dracula. Quarter 2 Dracula Bram Stoker 9 December 2012 Dracula In a world with diverse beliefs and increasing technology, we as . Psychology Essays With! people tend to be place in essays, a game of tug of war. Struggling to essays with, live a traditionally religious and modest life rather than falling for rutgers essays, the life of crime, sin, and essays, all forms of temptations. Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula developed a storyline that expresses the actions and essays, life styles that the people of the 19th century were experiencing. Throughout the chapters we go from grueling.
Abraham Van Helsing , Bram Stoker , Count Dracula 2371 Words | 6 Pages. Subverted 19th Century Traditional Social Mores and Norms in Dracula. Mores and Norms in Dracula Bram Stoker’s Dracula remains one of the more recognizable novels of its genre despite being . published in 1897. A classic horror story which has been retold and produced over and over again since its original publication, Dracula was especially disturbing when it originally was released because of how Stoker attacks Victorian era social mores and norms throughout the entire novel. Stoker subverts traditional 19th Century social mores and norms in Dracula through the portrayal. Abraham Van Helsing , Dracula , Gender role 1059 Words | 3 Pages.
Victorian Women in Dracula by Bram Stroker and Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Throughout Bram Stokers novel Dracula and how to others, William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth, the female characters Mina , Lucy , . and essays, Lady Macbeth represent the negative and positive aspects of the presence of women in westboro baptist church, certain situations. Rutgers! Throughout the westboro baptist church essay, entire novel, Mina possesses a good heart and rutgers, great respect for her husband. Writing The First Of A Research! Dracula influences Lucy all the way to her death and into her after life as a vampire. Lady Macbeth is the true essence of evil because she only rutgers adds more fuel to the flames. Critical Othello! Lady. Abraham Van Helsing , Dracula , Macbeth 1559 Words | 5 Pages. Such a Beast: Sexuality and Humanization in Dracula. Over the essays, course of cinematic history, many filmmakers have attempted to recreate the chilling, unprecedented world of Bram Stoker’s Dracula . . Arguably very few have succeeded, for the majority of directors tend to avoid the pervasive sexuality inherent in the novel. It is a difficult task to achieve, considering the blatant imagery surrounding sex and vampirism, such as the reproduction following a vampiric encounter and the phallocentric nature of the in, violence committed both by rutgers essays and against these. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1624 Words | 5 Pages.
Transformation of Dracula Dracula is a timeless novel written by Bram Stoker and to this day remains a thrilling read about church essay . good vs evil in the form of Van Helsing and his companions pitted against the supernatural forces of rutgers, Count Dracula , the vampire from Transylvania. Not only was this novel about good vs. evil but upon inspection found to have many themes and views relevant to the time it was written. This caused it to be a huge success of its time and in 1922 the German director Murnau seeing. Abraham Van Helsing , Bram Stoker , Count Dracula 849 Words | 3 Pages. Vampirism and the first paragraph of a research, Sexuality, the story Dracula, by essays Bram Stoker. women in with, the story Dracula , by Bram Stoker, is seen as one that defines the role of women in society during the nineteenth century. During this . Essays! time in and antithesis, Victorian England, women held a role that required them to behave in a certain way. The norm of essays, this time entails her to be the ideal image of purity and modesty. Women of this era had to live as an baptist essay, virgin wife figure of purity, and if unable to fulfill this role, she would be seen as a whore. However, the effect that the count Dracula has on the women. Abraham Van Helsing , Blood , Blood transfusion 1425 Words | 4 Pages.
Dracula Write an essay on essays, the representation of the footnotes, themes of Good and Evil in rutgers essays, Bram Stoker's Dracula . . Dracula is a story about the perennial battle between good and evil involving Dracula as the antagonist. This war dates back as far as God versus the Devil or the Wicked Witch of the West and the Good Witch in Oz. It is black and white, right? But wait, wasn’t it God who drowned the entire human population at one point and killed every Egyptian firstborn son at baptist church, another. Rutgers Essays! Was Lucifer a revolutionary. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 2274 Words | 6 Pages. Discuss the atmosphere of the first three chapters of psychology with, Dracula and examine what you think are the key themes that have been raised in the book . so far? The opening chapter of the rutgers essays, novel is told from the point of view of with footnotes, Jonathan Harker, in the form of his journal.
Harker is rutgers a young solicitor (lawyer) from England, who is sent by his employer to essays othello, the castle of Count Dracula , in Transylvania. Harker's been given the assignment to arrange the purchase of a property in London for the Count. He plans to. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1584 Words | 5 Pages. that we are older, and supposedly wiser, we understand that there are multiple influences, mainly after effects, concerned in rutgers essays, judging what is called good . The First Paragraph Research Paper! or bad and some examples of essays, this is shown in of a research paper, Bram Stoker's Dracula . It is the characters in this book, Jonathan Harker, Mina Murray, Dr.
Van Helsing, Dr. Seward, as well as many more, that show us that actions are judged as good or bad through many factors, including religion, society, and rutgers essays, morals, but it is ultimately determined by the effects. Abraham Van Helsing , Dracula , John Seward 1515 Words | 4 Pages. which is a reconstruction of Dracula , a novel by Bram Stoker, and Nosferatu a film directed by and antithesis F.W. Rutgers Essays! Murnau. The use of intertexuality in othello, Shadow . of the Vampire is a key aspect which allows it to echo; themes, the gothic mode and issues that are present in the other two texts. Through a clear pastiche, Merhige produces a new text from the old. Immortality is rutgers a key theme which has been subverted from the how to essay, physical sense through sucking blood, as it’s represented in Dracula , to the spiritual sense through.
Abraham Van Helsing , Bram Stoker , Count Dracula 1237 Words | 3 Pages. In Bram Stoker's Dracula , the most blatant and powerful symbol is blood. He takes the blood that means so much to the believers of this legend . and has it represent more than even they could imagine. Blood is the main object associated with vampires and vampirism. From a mythical standpoint, it is the basis of essays, life for the vampires as they feed off of the blood of young, vibrant souls. From a more scientific standpoint blood is baptist essay what would drip out of the corpse's mouth when family members would dig. Abraham Van Helsing , Dracula , John Seward 1246 Words | 3 Pages. Dracula and rutgers essays, Nosfertu Comparative Essay. In 1979 after countless film adaptations, the story of Dracula found itself in the hands of Werner Herzog, a German film maker, who was . determined to bring life into a tale already told. What began as a re-imagining of the psychology essays footnotes, classic silent film, Nosferatu, soon became a work of art of its own.
Nosferatu The Vampyre was an rutgers, excellent adaptation of the essays with footnotes, novel Dracula that not only stayed true to its source material, but also explored a different side of the rutgers essays, iconic vampire. It consistently plays homage. Abraham Van Helsing , Bram Stoker , Dracula 1231 Words | 3 Pages. Bram Stoker's Dracula: a Struggle to in, Maintain Victorian Upper and Middle Class. The Victorian men and women conveyed in Bram Stoker's Dracula are pure and virtuous members of the upper and middle class. Rutgers Essays! However, hiding . behind this composed and civilized conception of paragraph paper, England lies a dark and turbulent underbelly. This underbelly is the lumpenproletariat, whom Karl Marx defined as the lowest and most degraded section of the rutgers, proletariat; the ?down and outs' who make no contribution to the workers cause. How To Help Essay! Victorian culture discriminated against these vagrants, who were seen.
Abraham Van Helsing , Bourgeoisie , Dracula 1872 Words | 5 Pages. Compare/Contrast of Bram Stoker's Dracula and Polidori's the essays, Vampyre. Comparison and Contrast of Bram Stoker’s Dracula and Polidori’s The Vampyre While Bram Stoker’s Dracula and Polidori’s The . Vampyre share some minor details, mostly regarding the basics of vampires and the location and baptist church essay, date in which the stories take place, the majority of the stories differ greatly. The Vampyre was published almost a hundred years earlier, so it is easy to see how some details of that story can be seen in Dracula . Bram Stoker no doubt must have used The Vampyre as an rutgers essays, influence. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1977 Words | 5 Pages.
?Homosexuality in Dracula The legendary novel Dracula is gothic, bloody and oozing with sexuality. Bram Stoker's vampiric plot . reflects his ideology and psychology essays with, experience and rutgers essays, Dracula received a lot of attention from critics who showed various complex interpretations. During this course we have looked at psychology essays footnotes, critical essays that looked in depth at essays, different scenes in Dracula and we drew different images from critics' interpretations, which were built on their understanding of these scenes. Most of these critics. Abraham Van Helsing , Dracula , Homosexual behavior in animals 2268 Words | 6 Pages. Liminality in Dracula “Liminal entities are neither here nor there; they are betwixt and between the positions assigned and arrayed by law, . custom, convention, and ceremonial” (Turner, The Ritual Process 95). Arnold van Gennep’s original concept of liminality is critical essays othello a central theme to essays, Bram Stoker’s Dracula . It provides depth and understanding behind many of the superstitious beliefs and occurrences throughout the novel. Westboro! Liminality is the threshold and the presence of an in between state occurring within. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 1359 Words | 4 Pages.
Use Of The Diary Form Narrative in The Novel Dracula The Irish author, Bram Stoker, was a creative and intellectual writer, and as . such, wrote the gothic novel Dracula in the diary form of narrative. This was a good choice of how to write the novel since it was very beneficial to the plot of Dracula . Examples of how the diary form is beneficial to rutgers, Dracula are seen in his writing and book, as I will now commence in telling you. Church! One of the greatest benefits of the diary narrative. Abraham Van Helsing , Bram Stoker , Dracula 970 Words | 3 Pages. streets, waterways, recurring rainy weather, interesting European architecture, and mystique, London is the perfect location for Bram Stoker's . Dracula . Essays! London: The capital of Great Britain, and the center of attention in the nineteenth century, due to the many incidents that were going on at the time. The novel includes many daunting scenes, such as when Dracula heaves a sack withholding a deceased child before three female vampires. Critical Essays Othello! It is no surprise why he choose London to be the setting of his novel. Bram Stoker , Dracula , Jonathan Harker 1171 Words | 4 Pages. novel, Dracula , Stoker portrays many different aspects of women’s roles in the nineteenth century.
Women had a strictly defined role within the . Rutgers Essays! era; there was no thought of equality, no thought that women could liberate themselves sexually. Stoker uses women in this novel to critique against how to help others essay women’s liberation. Stoker’s portrayal of essays, women makes the novel seem like a fantasy. Writing Of A Paper! Women are primarily objects of essays, delicate beauty who occasionally need to be rescued from step write, danger. In the essays, novel Mina Murray is. Abraham Van Helsing , Count Dracula , Dracula 573 Words | 2 Pages. Dracula reflects both Bram Stoker’s context and and antithesis in, his interest in controversial ideas.
Use ‘ Dracula ’ and ‘Van Helsing’ to . demonstrate what concepts and concerns have endured and how they have been represented in both texts. JUSTIN LIANG Dracula ( novel) written by Bram stoker is a text which reflects its English Victorian era context, where gender roles were repressed and science and religion had a conflicting relationship. Essays! Van Helsing (Stephen Summers) is a contemporary reproduction which demonstrates. Abraham Van Helsing , Bram Stoker , Count Dracula 949 Words | 3 Pages. people perceive other’s at a time also contributes majorly to the development of modernity. Bram Stoker’s novel ‘ Dracula ’ and psychology footnotes, David Goyer’s . film ‘Blade Trinity’ contrast significantly as a result of difference in context. Weaponry had developed immensely over the two stories to cater for the advancements from one classic vampire to a fresh, modern, powerful one.
The story of ‘ Dracula ’, set in rutgers, Victorian times, consists of the simple, almost primitive weaponry, particularly ones of a superstitious. Blade: Trinity , Bram Stoker , David S. Goyer 1532 Words | 4 Pages. New Texts for New Contexts: Bram Stokers Dracula vs Interview with the Vampire. Bram Stoker - Dracula – 1897 Neil Jordan – Interview With The Vampire – 1994 “So there are no Vampires in Transylvania, no Count . Dracula ? All fictions my friend, fictions of writing paragraph paper, a demented Irishman” Good morning students and welcome to my class on New Texts for New Contexts. I just quoted Neil Jordan’s film Interview with the Vampire. This modern appropriation of Bram Stokers traditional Dracula narrative is the perfect example of how composers keep texts alive. Stokers Dracula written in 1897 is.
Abraham Van Helsing , Bram Stoker , Count Dracula 1527 Words | 4 Pages.
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3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on rutgers, the cover page of a book, put the name of the help others, corporate organization in rutgers the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print.
Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of essays, cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at rutgers essays first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the westboro, title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. Rutgers. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the guide research step step, title of rutgers essays, a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated.
The qualified writers of by great guide paper research step step, P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of essays, formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and guide research step, year of edition. Rutgers. Some on-line sources may not provide all the by great guide research, above-mentioned information.
In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of rutgers essays, publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. In. The preference in rutgers the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is how to, indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and rutgers, formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of footnotes, information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules.
Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of rutgers essays, each page. While heading refer to the title of and antithesis in, your paper and essays, the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms:
The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the how to help others, paper, however you are free to rutgers italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. Writing The First Of A Research Paper. All headings of the sections in rutgers essays MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of essays, fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and psychology essays others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. Rutgers Essays! shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the westboro church, increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on rutgers welfare be required to submit to baptist, drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of rutgers essays, media coverage on elections? (fact) What is help others essay human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from rutgers essays, elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in critical essays othello, political office? (value) How can we support the election of rutgers essays, more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the by great guide paper research step step write, rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to essays, reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice.
Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for westboro baptist church essay, people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the rutgers essays, TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the how to help essay, country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to rutgers, graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to critical othello, take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to rutgers essays, the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the in, way humans think. Essays! (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and psychology essays with footnotes focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the essays, way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by essays i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in rutgers essays, cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on by great guide step human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in rutgers essays, the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. Paper Step! have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the rutgers, history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to with, prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far?
Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to essays, society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. Critical! continue to act as a policeman for rutgers essays, other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. Baptist Church Essay! engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in rutgers, the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on westboro baptist church essay ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is essays culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and writing the first research cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the essays, economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to how to essay, help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the essays, importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on the first paper Argument . Rutgers! In the back of this book is a list of suggested issues and articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic.
You can take an idea from the article you like and paper write then research it to find out rutgers, what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on writing of a paper YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for essays, ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro and antithesis, or con.
Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to essays, give you an idea of what to othello, write about. Rutgers Essays! Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by by great step step write Virginia Kearney 22. Rutgers Essays! How to psychology essays with, Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by rutgers essays Virginia Kearney 32. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 129. Essays! Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States.
Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and rutgers essays an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. By Great Guide Paper! Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and rutgers essays ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to write an help others, argument paper and essays How to and antithesis in, write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Rutgers! Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the westboro essay, situation, don't know how to rutgers, go about writing this essay.
Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for psychology with footnotes, my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Rutgers! Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to help others, find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Rutgers Essays! Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in baptist, their own language at least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is essays fully immersed in by great guide write, English.
In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an essays, all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only and antithesis, works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and rutgers essays one that is very important for psychology, your country to consider. Rutgers! I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to baptist essay, look into this position topic for essays, me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States.
Hi Sam, you might want to psychology essays, try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in rutgers, one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. And Antithesis! I have this assignment of playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic).
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. Essays! Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago.
I greatly appreciate your website, and by great guide paper write I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in rutgers essays, schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from and antithesis in, United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. Essays! However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by and antithesis talking about what you agree with about modern music and rutgers acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to and antithesis, listen to it. Rutgers! Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of in, music. Rutgers Essays! I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. In! I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks.
Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. Rutgers! I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to of a, your class!
Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for rutgers, lots of critical othello, ideas on essays how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is psychology with generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States.
Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on essays HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from critical othello, yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is essays a great topic to choose.
Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from psychology footnotes, United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the rutgers essays, topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of baptist, writing how the definition of essays, beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago.
Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Footnotes! Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of rutgers, essays for essays, everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from essays, United States.
Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. How To Others! Thank you so much. Essays! Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students.
They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Westboro Baptist Essay! Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is essays going to be. And Antithesis! 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to essays, your question). Psychology Essays With Footnotes! 3. Decide who you want to essays, persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about help essay what that reader already knows and believes about rutgers essays your topic. The First Research Paper! That will help you develop your arguments.
The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Essays! Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. Psychology With Footnotes! That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and rutgers also your answers to those objections. Critical Othello! This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to rutgers essays, sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. By Great Guide Research! You can also narrow that to particular types of essays, vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the critical essays, HPV. Rutgers! Another possible argument on essays this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in rutgers essays, people today than in writing research, the past. Is the rutgers, right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. Or you can talk about guide research step GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from rutgers, United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from othello, Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Rutgers Essays! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of psychology essays with footnotes, their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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College Application Essay For Rutgers
What is rutgers, Critique? An Essay on Foucault’s Virtue. What is it to offer a critique? This is something that, I would wager, most of us understand in some ordinary sense. But matters become more vexing if we attempt to distinguish between a critique of this or that position and critique as a more generalized practice, one that might be described without reference to its specific objects. Can we even ask such a question about the generalized character of critique without gesturing toward an essence of critique? And if we achieved the generalized picture, offering something which approaches a philosophy of critique, would we then lose the very distinction between philosophy and critique that operates as part of the definition of critical essays, critique itself?
Critique is always a critique of some instituted practice, discourse, episteme, institution, and it loses its character the moment in which it is abstracted from its operation and made to stand alone as a purely generalizable practice. Rutgers Essays. But if this is true, this does not mean that no generalizations are possible or that, indeed, we are mired in particularisms. On the contrary, we tread here in by great guide step step an area of constrained generality, one which broaches the philosophical, but must, if it is to remain critical, remain at a distance from that very achievement. The essay I offer here is about Foucault, but let me begin by suggesting what I take to rutgers essays be an interesting parallel between what Raymond Williams and Theodor Adorno, in different ways, sought to accomplish under the name of “criticism” and what Foucault sought to understand by “critique.” I maintain that something of Foucault’s own contribution to, and alliance with, a progressive political philosophy will be made clear in the course of the comparison. Raymond Williams worried that the notion of criticism has been unduly restricted to the notion of “fault-finding” and the first paragraph of a research proposed that we find a vocabulary for the kinds of responses we have, specifically to cultural works, “which [do] not assume the habit (or right or duty) of judgment.” And what he called for was a more specific kind of response, one that did not generalize too quickly: “what always needs to be understood,” he wrote, “is the specificity of the response, which is not a judgment, but a practice.”(76) I believe this last line also marks the trajectory of Foucault’s thinking on this topic, since “critique” is precisely a practice that not only rutgers, suspends judgment for him, but offers a new practice of values based on that very suspension. So, for Williams, the practice of critique is not reducible to arriving at judgments (and expressing them). Significantly, Adorno makes a similar claim when he writes of the help essay “danger. of judging intellectual phenomena in a subsumptive, uninformed and administrative manner and rutgers essays assimilating them into the prevailing constellations of power which the intellect ought to expose.” So, the task of exposing those “constellations of power” is impeded by the rush to psychology with footnotes “judgment” as the exemplary act of critique. For Adorno, the very operation of essays, judgment serves to separate the critic from the and antithesis social world at hand, a move which deratifies the results of its own operation, constituting a “withdrawal from praxis.” (23) Adorno writes that the rutgers critic’s “very sovereignty, the claim to a more profound knowledge of the object, the separation of the idea from its object through the independence of the critical judgment threatens to succumb to the thinglike form of the object when cultural criticism appeals to essays footnotes a collection of rutgers, ideas on display, as it were, and psychology essays fetishizes isolated categories.”(23) For critique to operate as part of a praxis, for Adorno, is for it to apprehend the ways in which categories are themselves instituted, how the field of knowledge is ordered, and essays how what it suppresses returns, as it were, as its own constitutive occlusion. Judgments operate for both thinkers as ways to subsume a particular under an the first already constituted category, whereas critique asks after the occlusive constitution of the field of categories themselves. Essays. What becomes especially important for Foucault in this domain, to try to think the problem of freedom and, indeed, ethics in general, beyond judgment: critical thinking constitutes this kind of effort.
In 1978, Foucault delivered a lecture entitled, “What is Critique?”, a piece that prepared the way for psychology essays with footnotes his more well-known essay, “What is Enlightenment?” (1984). He not only asks what critique is, but seeks to essays understand the kind of question that critique institutes, offering some tentative ways of circumscribing its activity. What remains perhaps most important about the first paragraph of a paper that lecture, and the more developed essay that followed, is the question form in essays which the matter is put. For the very question, “what is critique?” is an instance of the critical enterprise in and antithesis in question, and so the rutgers essays question not only poses the problem—what is this critique that we supposedly do or, indeed, aspire to do?—but enacts a certain mode of questioning which will prove central to the activity of in, critique itself. Indeed, I would suggest that what Foucault seeks to do with this question is something quite different from what we have perhaps come to expect from critique. Essays. Habermas made the how to others essay operation of critique quite problematic when he suggested that a move beyond critical theory was required if we are to seek recourse to essays norms in making evaluative judgments about social conditions and social goals. The perspective of critique, in writing the first research paper his view, is able to call foundations into question, denaturalize social and political hierarchy, and even establish perspectives by which a certain distance on the naturalized world can be had. But none of these activities can tell us in what direction we ought to rutgers essays move, nor can they tell us whether the activities in which we engage are realizing certain kinds of normatively justified goals. Hence, in his view, critical theory had to give way to a stronger normative theory, such as communicative action, in critical essays order to supply a foundation for critical theory, enabling strong normative judgments to be made, and for politics not only to have a clear aim and normative aspiration, but for us to be able to evaluate current practices in terms of their abilities to reach those goals. In making this kind of criticism of critique, Habermas became curiously uncritical about the rutgers very sense of normativity he deployed. For the westboro question, “what are we to do?” presupposes that the “we” has been formed and that it is known, that its action is possible, and the field in which it might act is delimited.
But if those very formations and delimitations have normative consequences, then it will be necessary to essays ask after the values that set the stage for action, and this will be an essay important dimension of any critical inquiry into normative matters. And though the Habermasians may have an answer to this problem, my aim today is not to rehearse these debates nor to answer them, but to mark the distance between a notion of critique that is characterized as normatively impoverished in some sense, and another, which I hope to offer here, which is not only more complex than the rutgers essays usual criticism assumes but which has, I would argue, strong normative commitments that appear in forms that would be difficult, if not impossible, to how to help essay read within the current grammars of normativity. Indeed, in rutgers essays this essay, I hope to show that Foucault not only makes an important contribution to help essay normative theory, but that both his aesthetics and his account of the subject are integrally related to both his ethics and politics. Whereas some have dismissed him as an aesthete or, indeed, as a nihilist, I hope to rutgers suggest that the foray he makes into the first paragraph of a research, the topic of self-making and, by presupposition, into poiesis itself is rutgers essays, central to the politics of desubjugation that he proposes. Writing The First. Paradoxically, self-making and desubjugation happen simultaneously when a mode of existence is risked which is unsupported by what he calls the essays regime the research truth. Foucault begins his discussion by affirming that there are various grammars for the term, “critique,” distinguishing between a “high Kantian enterprise” called critique as well as “the little polemical activities that are called critique” (24) Thus, he warns us at the outset that critique will not be one thing, and that we will not be able to define it apart from the various objects by which it itself is defined. Rutgers Essays. “By its function,” he writes “[critique] seems to writing be condemned to dispersion, dependency and pure heteronomy.” “It only exists in relation to something other than itself.” Thus, Foucault seeks to define critique, but finds that only a series of approximations are possible. Critique will be dependent on its objects, but its objects will in turn define the rutgers essays very meaning of critique. Further, the primary task of critique will not be to evaluate whether its objects —social conditions, practices, forms of knowledge, power, and discourse—are good or bad, valued highly or demeaned, but to bring into relief the very framework of evaluation itself. Critical Othello. What is the relation of knowledge to power such that our epistemological certainties turn out to support a way of structuring the world that forecloses alternative possibilities of rutgers, ordering? Of course, we may think that we need epistemological certainty in order to state for sure that the world is and ought to be ordered a given way.
To what extent, however, is that certainty orchestrated by forms of knowledge precisely in order to foreclose the possibility of thinking otherwise? Now, one might wisely ask, what good is thinking otherwise, if we don’t know in advance that thinking otherwise will produce a better world? If we do not have a moral framework in which to decide with knowingness that certain new possibilities or ways of writing paragraph research, thinking otherwise will bring forth that world whose betterness we can judge by sure and already established standards? This has become something of a regular rejoinder to Foucault and the Foucaultian-minded. And shall we assume that the relative silence that has greeted this habit of rutgers essays, fault-finding in guide paper research Foucault is a sign that his theory has no reassuring answers to give? I think we can assume that the answers that are being proffered do not have reassurance as their primary aim. Rutgers Essays. This is, of essay, course, not to say what withdraws reassurance is, by definition, not an answer. Indeed, the only rejoinder, it seems to me, is to rutgers return to a more fundamental meaning of othello, “critique” in order to see what may well be wrong with the question as it is posed and, indeed, to pose the rutgers question anew, so that a more productive approach to the place of ethics within politics might be mapped. One might wonder, indeed, whether what I mean by “productive” will be gauged by standards and measures that I am willing to reveal, or which I grasp in full at the moment in which I make such a claim. But here I would ask for your patience since it turns out paragraph of a paper, that critique is a practice that requires a certain amount of patience in the same way that reading, according to Nietzsche, required that we act a bit more like cows than humans and learn the rutgers essays art of slow rumination.
Foucault’s contribution to what appears as an impasse within critical and post-critical theory of writing paper, our time is precisely to ask us to rethink critique as a practice in which we pose the question of the limits of our most sure ways of rutgers essays, knowing, what Williams referred to as our “uncritical habits of mind” and what Adorno described as ideology (where the “unideological thought is that which does not permit itself to essays be reduced to ‘operational terms’ and instead strives solely to help the things themselves to that articulation from which they are otherwise cut off by the prevailing language.”) One does not drive to the limits for a thrill experience, or because limits are dangerous and sexy, or because it brings us into rutgers essays, a titillating proximity with evil. One asks about the limits of ways of knowing because one has already run up against by great guide paper step write a crisis within the epistemological field in which one lives. The categories by which social life are ordered produce a certain incoherence or entire realms of unspeakability. And it is from rutgers essays, this condition, the guide paper research step tear in the fabric of our epistemological web, that the practice of critique emerges, with the awareness that no discourse is adequate here or that our reigning discourses have produced an essays impasse. Indeed, the very debate in which the strong normative view wars with critical theory may produce precisely that form of discursive impasse from which the necessity and the first paper urgency of critique emerges. For Foucault, critique is “a means for rutgers a future or a truth that it will not know nor happen to how to help be, it oversees a domain it would not want to rutgers police and is unable to with footnotes regulate.” So critique will be that perspective on established and ordering ways of rutgers, knowing which is not immediately assimilated into that ordering function.
Significantly, for writing research Foucault, this exposure of the limit of the rutgers essays epistemological field is linked with the practice of help, virtue, as if virtue is counter to regulation and rutgers essays order, as if virtue itself is to be found in the risking of established order. He is not shy about the relation here. With Footnotes. He writes, “there is something in critique that is akin to virtue.” And then he says something which might be considered even more surprising: “this critical attitude [is] virtue in essays general.” (25) There are some preliminary ways we can understand Foucault’s effort to cast critique as virtue. Virtue is most often understood either as an attribute or a practice of church, a subject, or indeed a quality that conditions and characterizes a certain kind of action or practice. It belongs to an ethics which is not fulfilled merely by essays, following objectively formulated rules or laws. And virtue is not only a way of complying with or conforming with preestablished norms. It is, more radically, a critical relation to critical othello those norms, one which, for Foucault, takes shape as a specific stylization of morality.
Foucault gives us an indication of what he means by virtue in rutgers the introduction to The Use of Pleasure: The History of and antithesis, Sexuality, Volume Two.  At this juncture he makes clear that he seeks to move beyond a notion of ethical philosophy that issues a set of prescriptions. Just as critique intersects with philosophy without quite coinciding with it, so Foucault in that introduction seeks to make of his own thought an example of a non-prescriptive form of moral inquiry. Rutgers. In the same way, he will later ask about forms of moral experience that are not rigidly defined by essays othello, a juridical law, a rule or command to which the self is said mechanically or uniformly to submit. The essay that he writes, he tells us, is itself the example of such a practice, “to explore what might be changed, in its own thought, through the rutgers practice of a knowledge that is critical, foreign to it.” (9) Moral experience has to rutgers essays do with a self-transformation prompted by a form of knowledge that is foreign to one’s own. And this form of moral experience will be different from the submission to a command. Indeed, to the extent that Foucault interrogates moral experience here or elsewhere, he understands himself to be making an inquiry into moral experiences that are not primarily or fundamentally structured by prohibition or interdiction.
In the first volume of The History of Sexuality , he sought to show that the primary interdictions assumed by psychoanalysis and how to others essay the structuralist account of cultural prohibitions cannot be assumed as historical constants. Moreover, historiographically considered, moral experience cannot be understood through recourse to a prevailing set of interdictions within a given historical time. Although there are codes to be studied, these codes must always be studied in relation to the modes of subjectivation to which they correspond. He makes the claim that the juridification of law achieves a certain hegemony within the thirteenth century, but that if one goes back to Greek and Roman classical cultures, one finds practices, or “arts of existence” (10) which have to do with a cultivated relation of the self to itself. Introducing the notion of “arts of essays, existence,” Foucault also reintroduces and critical reemphasizes “intentional and rutgers essays voluntary actions,” specifically, “those actions by which men not only set themselves rules of conduct, but also seek to transform themselves in their singular being, and to make their life into an oeuvre.” Such lives do not simply conform to moral precepts or norms in such a way that selves, considered preformed or ready-made, fit themselves into in, a mold that is essays, set forth by othello, the precept. Essays. On the contrary, the self fashions itself in terms of the norm, comes to inhabit and westboro baptist essay incorporate the norm, but the norm is not in this sense external to rutgers essays the principle by by great guide paper step, which the self is formed . What is at issue for him is not behaviors or ideas or societies or “ideologies,” but “the problematizations through which being offers itself to be, necessarily, thought—and the practices on the basis of which these problematizations are formed.”(11) This last claim is hardly transparent, but what it suggests is essays, that certain kinds of practices which are designed to westboro church handle certain kinds of problems produce, over time, a settled domain of ontology as their consequence, and this ontological domain, in turn, constrains our understanding of what is possible. Only with reference to this prevailing ontological horizon, itself instituted through a set of practices, will we be able to rutgers understand the kinds of relations to moral precepts that have been formed as well as those that are yet to be formed. For instance, he considers at length various practices of austerity, and he ties these to the production of a certain kind of masculine subject.
The practices of austerity do not attest to a single and abiding prohibition, but work in the service of critical essays othello, crafting a certain kind of self. Or put in a more precise way, the self, incorporating the rutgers essays rules of conduct that represent the virtue of austerity, creates itself as a specific kind of subject. This self-production is “the elaboration and stylization of an psychology with footnotes activity in the exercise of its power and the practice of its liberty.” This was not a practice that opposed pleasure pure and simple, but a certain practice of pleasure itself (24), a practice of pleasure in the context of moral experience. Thus, in section 3 of that same introduction, Foucault makes clear that it will not suffice to offer a chronicled history of moral codes, for such a history cannot tell us how these codes were lived and, more specifically, what forms of rutgers essays, subject-formation such codes required and facilitated. Here he begins to sound like a phenomenologist. How To Others Essay. But there is, in addition to the recourse to the experiential means by which moral categories are grasped, a critical move as well, for the subjective relation to those norms will be neither predictable nor mechanical. The relation will be ‘critical’ in the sense that it will not comply with a given category, but rather constitute an interrogatory relation to essays the field of categorization itself, referring at least implicitly to psychology footnotes the limits of the essays epistemological horizon within which practices are formed. And Antithesis In. The point will not be to refer practice to a pregiven epistemological context, but to establish critique as the rutgers essays very practice that exposes the limits of that epistemological horizon itself, making the contours of the horizon appear, as it were, for the first time, we might say, in relation to its own limit. Moreover, the critical practice in and antithesis question turns out to entail self-transformation in relation to a rule of rutgers, conduct. How, then, does self-transformation lead to the exposure of this limit?
How is self-transformation understood as a “practice of liberty,” and how is this practice understood as part of Foucault’s lexicon of by great paper research step, virtue? Let us begin first by understanding the notion of self-transformation at stake here, and essays then consider how it is how to help, related to rutgers essays the problem called “critique” which forms the focus of our deliberations here. It is, of course, one thing to conduct oneself in othello relation to a code of essays, conduct, and it is another thing to and antithesis form oneself as an essays ethical subject in relation to a code of conduct (and it will be yet another thing to form oneself as that which risks the orderliness of the critical code itself). The rules of chastity provide an important example for Foucault. There is rutgers, a difference, for psychology footnotes instance, in not acting on desires that would violate a precept to which one is morally bound and rutgers developing a practice of desire, so to speak, which is critical, informed by a certain ethical project or task. The model according to essays which submitting to a rule of law is required would involve one in not acting in westboro baptist church essay certain ways, installing an effective prohibition against the acting out of certain desires. But the model which Foucault seeks to understand and, indeed, to incorporate and exemplify takes moral prescription to participate in the forming of a kind of action. Foucault’s point here seems to be that renunciation and proscription do not necessarily enjoin a passive or non-active ethical mode, but form instead an ethical mode of conduct and a way of stylizing both action and pleasure. I believe this contrast that Foucault lays out between a command-based ethics and the ethical practice which centrally engages the formation of the self sheds important light on rutgers, the distinction between obedience and virtue that he offers in his essay, “What is Critique?” Foucault contrasts this yet to be defined understanding of “virtue” with obedience, showing how the possibility of this form of virtue is established through its difference from an uncritical obedience to authority. The resistance to in authority, of course, constitutes the hallmark of the rutgers Enlightenment for Foucault.
And he offers us a reading of the Enlightenment which not only establishes his own continuity with its aims, but reads his own dilemmas back into the history of the Enlightenment itself. The account he provides is one that no “Enlightenment” thinker would accept, but this resistance would not invalidate the characterization at hand, for what Foucault seeks in essays footnotes the characterization of the Enlightenment is precisely what remains “unthought” within its own terms: hence, his is a critical history. In his view, critique begins with questioning the demand for absolute obedience and subjecting every governmental obligation imposed on subjects to a rational and reflective evaluation. Although Foucault will not follow this turn to essays reason, he will nevertheless ask what criteria delimit the sorts of reasons that can come to bear on the question of obedience. Psychology With. He will be particularly interested in rutgers essays the problem of how that delimited field forms the subject and how, in turn, a subject comes to form and reform those reasons. This capacity to form reasons will be importantly linked to the self-transformative relation mentioned above.
To be critical of an authority that poses as absolute requires a critical practice that has self-transformation at its core. But how do we move from understanding the psychology footnotes reasons we might have for consenting to a demand to forming those reasons for ourselves, to transforming ourselves in rutgers essays the course of producing those reasons (and, finally, putting at risk the and antithesis in field of rutgers essays, reason itself)? Are these not distinct kinds of problems, or does one invariably lead to the other? Is the autonomy achieved in forming reasons which serve as the basis for accepting or rejecting a pregiven law the same as the transformation of the self that takes place when a rule becomes incorporated into the very action of the subject? As we shall see, both the transformation of the self in relation to ethical precepts and the practice of critique are considered forms of “art,” stylizations and repetitions, suggesting that there is by great guide, no possibility of accepting or refusing a rule without a self who is stylized in response to the ethical demand upon it. In the essays context where obedience is research, required, Foucault locates the desire that informs the question, “how not to be governed?” (28) This desire, and the wonderment that follows from it, forms the essays central impetus of critique. It is of course unclear how the desire not to be governed is linked with virtue. He does make clear, however, that he is not posing the possibility of radical anarchy, and that the question is not how to become radically ungovernable. Psychology With Footnotes. It is a specific question that emerges in relation to a specific form of government: “how not to rutgers be governed like that , by that, in the name of those principles, with such and such an objective in mind and by means of such procedures, not like that, not for that, not by critical othello, them.”
This becomes the signature mark of “the critical attitude”(28) and its particular virtue. For Foucault, the rutgers question itself inaugurates both a moral and political attitude, “the art of not being governed or, better, the art of not being governed like that and at that cost.”(29) Whatever virtue Foucault here circumscribes for us will have to and antithesis in do with objecting to essays that imposition of westboro baptist church, power, to its costs, to essays the way in which it is administered, to those who do that administering. One might be tempted to think that Foucault is simply describing resistance, but here it seems that “virtue” has taken the place of that term, or becomes the means by which it is redescribed. We will have to ask why. Moreover, this virtue is described as well as an “art,” the art of essays, not being governed “quite so much,” so what is the relation between aesthetics and ethics at essays, work here? He finds the origins of critique in the relation of paper research step step, resistance to ecclesiastical authority. In relation to church doctrine, “not wanting to be governed was a certain way of refusing, challenging, limiting (say it as you like) ecclesiastical rule.
It meant returning to the Scriptures. it meant questioning what kind of truth the Scriptures told.” (30). And this objection was clearly waged in the name of an alternative or, minimally, emerging ground of truth and of justice. This leads Foucault to formulate a second definition of “critique”: “Not to want to be governed. not wanting to accept these laws because they are unjust because. they hide a fundamental illegitimacy.”(30) Critique is that which exposes this illegitimacy, but it is essays, not because critique has recourse to a more fundamental political or moral order. Foucault writes that the critical project is “confronted with government and the obedience it stipulates” and that what “critique means” in this context is writing of a, “putting forth universal and indefeasible rights to which every government, whatever it may be, whether a monarch, a magistrate, an educator or a pater familias, will have to submit.”(30). Essays. The practice of critique, however, does not discover these universal rights, as Enlightenment theorists claim, but it does “put them forth.” However, it does not put them forth not as positive rights. And Antithesis In. The “putting forth” is an act which limits the power of the law, an act which counters and rivals the workings of power, power at rutgers, the moment of its renewal. This is the positing of limitation itself, one that takes form as a question and which asserts, in its very assertion, a “right” to question. From the sixteenth century on, the question “how not to be governed” becomes specified as “What are the limits of the right to govern?”(31) “‘To not want to be governed’ is of course not accepting as true. what an essay authority tells you is true, or at least not accepting it because an authority tells you that it is true, but rather accepting it only if one considers valid the rutgers reasons for doing so.” There is of course a fair amount of ambiguity in this situation, for what will constitute a ground of validity for guide step step accepting authority? Does the validity derive from the consent to accept authority? If so, does consent validate the reasons offered, whatever they are?
Or is it rather the case that it is only on the basis of a prior and discoverable validity that one offers one’s consent? And do these prior reasons, in their validity, make the consent a valid one? If the first alternative is correct, then consent is the criterion by which validity is judged, and it would appear that Foucault’s position reduces to a form of voluntarism. But perhaps what he is offering us by way of “critique” is an act, even a practice of freedom, which cannot reduce to voluntarism in any easy way. For the practice by which the limits to absolute authority are set is one that is fundamentally dependent on the horizon of knowledge effects within which it operates. The critical practice does not well up from the rutgers essays innate freedom of the soul, but is formed instead in the crucible of a particular exchange between a set of rules or precepts (which are already there) and a stylization of acts (which extends and and antithesis reformulates that prior set of rules and precepts).
This stylization of the rutgers self in relation to the rules comes to count as a “practice.” In Foucault’s view, following Kant in psychology with an attenuated sense, the act of consent is a reflexive movement by which validity is attributed to or withdrawn from authority. Rutgers. But this reflexivity does not take place internal to the first paragraph paper a subject. For Foucault, this is an rutgers act which poses some risk, for the point will not only be to object to this or that governmental demand, but to ask about the order in which such a demand becomes legible and possible. And if what one objects to are the epistemological orderings that have established the rules of governmental validity, then saying “no” to the demand will require departing from the established grounds of its validity, marking the limit of that validity, which is something different and far more risky than finding a given demand invalid. In this difference, we might say, one begins to enter a critical relation to such orderings and the ethical precepts to which they give rise. The problem with those grounds that Foucault calls “illegitimate” is not that they are partial or self-contradictory or that they lead to hypocritical moral stands. The problem is precisely that they seek to foreclose the critical relation, that is, to extend their own power to order the entire field of moral and political judgment. They orchestrate and exhaust the field of certainty itself. How does one call into question the exhaustive hold that such rules of ordering have upon certainty without risking uncertainty, without inhabiting that place of wavering which exposes one to the charge of essay, immorality, evil, aestheticism. The critical attitude is not moral according to the rules whose limits that very critical relation seeks to interrogate.
But how else can critique do its job without risking the denunciations of those who naturalize and render hegemonic the very moral terms put into question by critique itself? Foucault’s distinction between government and rutgers essays governmentalization seeks to show that the apparatus denoted by the former enters into the practices of those who are being governed, their very ways of knowing, their very ways of being. To be governed is not only to have a form imposed upon one’s existence, but to be given the terms within which existence will and will not be possible. How To Help. A subject will emerge in relation to an established order of truth, but it can also take a point of essays, view on that established order that retrospectively suspends its own ontological ground. If governmentalization is. this movement through which individuals are subjugated in the reality of a social practice through mechanisms of power that adhere to a truth, well, then!
I will say that critique is the movement by which the subject gives himself the right (le sujet se donne le droit) to help others question truth on its effects of power and question power on its discourses of truth. Essays. (my emphasis, English text, 32; French text, 39) Note here that the subject is said to “give himself that right,” a mode of self-allocation and selfauthorization that seems to foreground the reflexivity of the writing the first paragraph of a research claim. Is this, then, a self-generated movement, one which shores up the essays subject over and against a countervailing authority? And what difference does it make, if any, that this self-allocation and self-designation emerges as an “art”? “Critique,” he writes, “will be the art of voluntary insubordination, that of reflected intractability [ l’indocilite reflechie ].” If it is an “art” in his sense, then critique will not be a single act, nor will it belong exclusively to a subjective domain, for it will be the stylized relation to critical the demand upon it. And the style will be critical to the extent that, as style, it is not fully determined in rutgers advance, it incorporates a contingency over time that marks the limits to the ordering capacity of the field in question. So the stylization of guide paper research step, this “will” will produce a subject who is not readily knowable under the established rubric of truth.
More radically, Foucault pronounces: “Critique would essentially insure the desubjugation [ desassujetiisement ] of the subject in the context [ le jeu ] of what we could call, in a word, the politics of truth.” (32, 39) The politics of truth pertains to those relations of essays, power that circumscribe in advance what will and will not count as truth, which order the world in certain regular and regulatable ways, and which we come to accept as the given field of othello, knowledge. We can understand the salience of this point when we begin to ask: What counts as a person? What counts as a coherent gender? What qualifies as a citizen? Whose world is legitimated as real? Subjectively, we ask: Who can I become in such a world where the meanings and limits of the rutgers essays subject are set out in advance for me? By what norms am I constrained as I begin to writing ask what I may become? And what happens when I begin to rutgers essays become that for which there is no place within the given regime of truth? Is this not precisely what is meant by “the desubjugation of the subject in the play of. the politics of truth”(my translation)? At stake here is the relation between the limits of ontology and epistemology, the link between the limits of what I might become and the limits of what I might risk knowing.
Deriving a sense of critique from Kant, Foucault poses the question that is the question of critique itself: “Do you know up to paper write what point you can know?” “Our liberty is at stake.” Thus, liberty emerges at the limits of what one can know, at the very moment in which the desubjugation of the subject within the politics of truth takes place, the moment where a certain questioning practice begins that takes the following form: “‘What, therefore, am I’, I who belong to this humanity, perhaps to this piece of it, at this point in time, at this instant of humanity which is subjected to the power of rutgers, truth in general and truths in particular?”(46) Another way of putting this is the following: “What, given the contemporary order of being, can I be?” If, in posing this question, liberty is at essays, stake, it may be that staking liberty has something to do with what Foucault calls virtue, with a certain risk that is rutgers, put into play through thought and, indeed, through language where the contemporary ordering of being is brought to essays with its limit. But how do we understand this contemporary order of being in which I come to stake myself? Foucault chooses here to characterize this historically conditioned order of rutgers essays, being in a way that links him with the critical theory of the Frankfurt school, identifying “rationalization” as the governmentalizing effect on ontology. Allying himself with a Left critical tradition post-Kant, Foucault writes, From the Hegelian Left to the Frankfurt School, there has been a complete critique of positivism, rationalization, of techne and technicalization, a whole critique of the relationships between the fundamental project of science and techniques whose objective was to show the connections between science’s naive presumptions, on one hand, and the forms of domination characteristic of contemporary society, on the other. (39) In his view, rationalization takes a new form when it comes into the service of bio-power. And what continues to be difficult for most social actors and critics within this situation is to discern the relationship between “rationalization and power.”(39) What appears to be a merely epistemic order, a way of ordering the world, does not readily admit of the constraints by which that ordering takes place. Nor does it eagerly show the way in which the intensification and totalization of rationalizing effects leads to an intensification of power.
Foucault asks, “How is it that rationalization leads to the furor of in, power?”(42) Clearly, the capacity for rationalization to reach into the tributaries of life not only characterizes modes of essays, scientific practice, “but also social relationships, state organizations, economic practices and perhaps even individual behaviors?”(43) It reaches its “furor” and its limits as it seizes and the first paragraph paper pervades the subject it subjectivates. Power sets the limits to what a subject can “be,” beyond which it no longer “is,” or it dwells in a domain of suspended ontology. Rutgers Essays. But power seeks to constrain the subject through the force of coercion, and paper research the resistance to rutgers essays coercion consists in the stylization of the self at the limits of established being. One of the first tasks of critique is to discern the relation “between mechanisms of coercion and elements of knowledge.” (50) Here again we seem confronted with the limits of baptist essay, what is rutgers, knowable, limits which exercise a certain force without being grounded in any necessity, limits which can only essays, be tread or interrogated by risking a certain security within an available ontology: [N]othing can exist as an element of essays, knowledge if, on the one hand, it . does not conform to a set of rules and constraints characteristic, for example, of a given type of scientific discourse in a given period, and by great guide step step if, on rutgers essays, the other hand, it does not possess the effects of coercion or simply the incentives peculiar to what is scientifically validated or simply rational or simply generally accepted, etc. (52) He then continues to show that knowledge and power are not finally separable, but work together to establish a set of subtle and explicit criteria for thinking the baptist essay world: “It is therefore not a matter of describing what knowledge is and rutgers essays what power is and how one would repress the writing other or how the other would abuse the one, but rather, a nexus of knowledge-power has to be described so that we can grasp what constitutes the acceptability of a system.” (52-53) The critic thus has a double task, to rutgers show how knowledge and power work to constitute a more or less systematic way of ordering the world with its own “conditions of acceptability of a system,” but also “to follow the breaking points which indicate its emergence.” So not only is it necessary to isolate and identify the footnotes peculiar nexus of power and knowledge that gives rise to the field of essays, intelligible things, but also to track the way in which that field meets its breaking point, the moments of help essay, its discontinuities, the sites where it fails to constitute the intelligibility for which it stands. What this means is that one looks both for the conditions by essays, which the object field is constituted, but also for the limits of those conditions, the moments where they point up their contingency and by great step their transformability. Rutgers Essays. In Foucault’s terms, “schematically speaking, we have perpetual mobility, essential fragility or rather the complex interplay between what replicates the same process and what transforms it.” (58) Indeed, another way to talk about this dynamic within critique is to say that rationalization meets its limits in desubjugation. If the desubjugation of the subject emerges at the moment in and antithesis which the rutgers essays episteme constituted through rationalization exposes its limit, then desubjugation marks precisely the how to help others essay fragility and transformability of the epistemics of power. Critique begins with the presumption of governmentalization and then with its failure to totalize the subject its seeks to know and to subjugate.
But the means by which this very relation is articulated is described, in a disconcerting way, as fiction. Why would it be fiction? And in what sense is it fiction? Foucault refers to “an historical-philosophical practice [in which] one had to make one’s own history, fabricate history, as if through fiction [ de faire comme par fiction ], in terms of how it would be traversed by the question of the essays relationships between structures of rationality which articulate true discourse and essays the mechanisms of subjugation which are linked to rutgers essays it.” (45, 44) There is thus a dimension of the methodology itself which partakes of fiction, which draws fictional lines between rationalization and desubjugation, between the knowledge-power nexus and in its fragility and limit. We are not told what sort of fiction this will be, but it seems clear that Foucault is drawing on Nietzsche and, in particular, the essays kind of fiction that genealogy is said to be. You may remember that although it seems that for Nietzsche the by great research write genealogy of morals is the attempt to locate the origins of values, he is actually seeking to essays find out how the very notion of the origin became instituted. And the means by which he seeks to explain the origin is fictional. He tells a fable of the nobles, another about a social contract, another about a slave revolt in morality, and yet another about creditor and debtor relations. None of these fables can be located in space or time, and in any effort to try to find the historical complement to rutgers essays Nietzsche’s genealogies will necessarily fail. Indeed, in the place of an essays account that finds the rutgers origin to values or, indeed, the origin of the origin, we read fictional stories about the way that values are originated. A noble says something is the case and it becomes the case: the westboro baptist speech act inaugurates the rutgers essays value, and essays becomes something like an atopical and rutgers essays atemporal occasion for the origination of values.
Indeed, Nietzsche’s own fiction-making mirrors the very acts of inauguration that he attributes to those who make values. So he not only describes that process, but that description becomes an in instance of value- production, enacting the very process that it narrates. How would this particular use of fiction relate to Foucault’s notion of critique? Consider that Foucault is rutgers essays, trying to understand the possibility of desubjugation within rationalization without assuming that there is a source for resistance that is baptist church essay, housed in the subject or maintained in some foundational mode. Rutgers. Where does resistance come from? Can it be said to be the upsurge of some human freedom shackled by the powers of rationalization? If he speaks, as he does, of a will not to be governed, how are we to understand the status of guide research step write, that will? In response to rutgers essays a query along these lines, he remarks. I do not think that the will not to writing paragraph be governed at all is something that one could consider an rutgers originary aspiration ( je ne pense pas en effet que la volonte de n’etre pas gouverne du tout soit quelque chose que l’on puisse considerer comme une aspiration originaire) . I think that, in fact, the will not to be governed is always the will not to be governed thusly, like that, by these people, at of a paper, this price. (72) He goes on essays, to warn against the absolutizing of this will that philosophy is always tempted to perform. He seeks to avoid what he calls “the philosophical and theoretical paroxysm of something that would be this will not to be relatively governed.”(72-73) He makes clear that accounting for this will involves him in a problem of the essays othello origin, and he comes quite close to ceding the terrain, but a certain Nietzschean reluctance prevails.
He writes, I was not referring to something that would be a fundamental anarchism, that would be like an rutgers essays originary freedom ( qui serait comme la liberte originaire ), absolutely and wholeheartedly ( absolument et en son fond) resistant to any governmentalization. I did not say it, but this does not mean that I absolutely exclude it ( Je ne l’ai pas dit, mais cela ne veut pas dire que je l’exclus absolument ). How To Help Others Essay. I think that my presentation stops at this point, because it was already too long, but also because I am wondering ( mais aussi parce que je me demande ). if one wants to explore this dimension of critique that seems to essays me to be so important because it is both part of, and not part of, philosophy. it is supported by something akin ( qui serait ou ) to the historical practice of revolt, the non-acceptance of by great paper research step write, a real government, on one hand, or, on the other, the individual refusal of governmentality.”(72-73, 59) Whatever this is that one draws upon as one resists governmentalization will be “ like an originary freedom” and “something akin to the historical practice of revolt” (my emphasis). Like them, indeed, but apparently not quite the same. As for Foucault’s mention of “originary freedom,” he offers and rutgers essays withdraws it at once. “I did not say it,” he remarks, after coming quite close to saying it, after showing us how he almost said it, after exercising that very proximity in the open for us in what can be understood as something of a tease. What discourse nearly seduces him here, subjugating him to its terms? And how does he draw from the critical essays very terms that he refuses? What art form is this in which a nearly collapsible critical distance is performed for us? And is this the same distance that informs the practice of wondering, of rutgers essays, questioning?
What limits of westboro church, knowing does he dare to broach as he wonders out loud for us? The inaugural scene of critique involves “the art of voluntary insubordination,” and the voluntary or, indeed, “originary freedom” is given here, but in the form of a conjecture, in a form of essays, art that suspends ontology and brings us into the suspension of church essay, disbelief. Foucault finds a way to essays say “originary freedom,” and by great guide step step write I suppose that it gives him great pleasure to utter these words, pleasure and rutgers fear. He speaks them, but only westboro baptist, through staging the words, relieving himself of an ontological commitment, but releasing the words themselves for a certain use. Does he refer to originary freedom here? Does he seek recourse to it? Has he found the well of originary freedom and drunk from it? Or does he, significantly, posit it, mention it, say it without quite saying it? Is he invoking it so that we might relive its resonances, and know its power?
The staging of the essays term is not its assertion, but we might say that the assertion is staged, rendered artfully, subjected to an ontological suspension, precisely so it might be spoken. And that it is critical othello, this speech act, the one which for a time relieves the phrase, “originary freedom,” from the epistemic politics within which it lives which also performs a certain desubjugation of the subject within the politics of truth. For when one speaks in that way, one is gripped and freed by the words one nevertheless says. Of course, politics is not simply a matter of speaking, and rutgers essays I do not mean to rehabilitate Aristotle in the form of Foucault (although, I confess, that such a move intrigues me, and I mention it here to offer it as a possibility without committing myself to it at writing the first paper, once). In this verbal gesture toward the end of his lecture, a certain freedom is exemplified, not by the reference to the term without any foundational anchor, but by rutgers, the artful performance of its release from its usual discursive constraints, from the conceit that one might only paragraph paper, utter it knowing in advance what its anchor must be.
Foucault’s gesture is oddly brave, I would suggest, for it knows that it cannot ground the claim of original freedom. This not knowing permits for the particular use it has within his discourse. He braves it anyway, and so his mention, his insistence, become an allegory for a certain risk-taking that happens at the limit of the epistemological field. And this becomes a practice of rutgers essays, virtue, perhaps, and and antithesis not, as his critics profess, a sign of moral despair, precisely to the extent that the rutgers essays practice of this kind of speaking posits a value which it does not know how to writing of a research paper ground or to secure for itself, posits it anyway, and thereby shows that a certain intelligibility exceeds the limits on intelligibility that power-knowledge has already set. This is virtue in the minimal sense precisely because it offers the perspective by which the subject gains a critical distance on established authority. But it is also an act of courage, acting without guarantees, risking the essays subject at the limits of its ordering. Who would Foucault be if he were to utter such words? What desubjugation does he perform for essays with us with this utterance? To gain a critical distance from established authority means for Foucault not only to recognize the ways in which the coercive effects of knowledge are at work in essays subject-formation itself, but to critical essays othello risk one’s very formation as a subject. Thus, in “The Subject and Power,” Foucault will claim “this form of power [that] applies itself to immediate, everyday life which categorizes the individual, marks him by his own individuality, attaches him to his own identity, imposes a law of truth on him which he must recognize and rutgers essays which others have to recognize in him.”(212) And when that law falters or is broken, the very possibility of recognition is imperiled.
So when we ask how we might say “originary freedom,” and say it in the wondering, we also put into question the subject who is said to be rooted in that term, releasing it, paradoxically, for a venture which might actually give the term new substance and possibility. In concluding, I would simply return to the introduction to The Use of Pleasure where Foucault defines the practices that concern him, the “arts of existence” (10), as having to and antithesis in do with a cultivated relation of the essays self to itself. This kind of formulation brings us closer to the strange sort of westboro baptist essay, virtue that Foucault’s antifoundationalism comes to represent. Indeed, as I wrote earlier, when he introduces the notion of rutgers, “arts of existence,” Foucault also refers to such arts of existence as producing subjects who “seek to psychology essays with footnotes transform themselves in their singular being, and to make their life into an oeuvre.” We might think that this gives support to the charge that Foucault has fully aestheticized existence at the expense of essays, ethics, but I would suggest only and antithesis in, that he has shown us that there can be no ethics, and no politics, without recourse to this singular sense of poiesis. The subject who is formed by the principles furnished by the discourse of truth is not yet the rutgers essays subject who endeavors to form itself. Engaged in “arts of existence,” this subject is both crafted and crafting, and the line between how it is by great paper step write, formed, and rutgers how it becomes a kind of forming, is not easily, if ever drawn. Essay. For it is not the case that a subject is formed and then turns around and begins suddenly to form itself. On the essays contrary, the writing the first paragraph research paper formation of the subject is the institution of the rutgers essays very reflexivity that indistinguishably assumes the burden of formation. The “indistinguishability” of in, this line is precisely the juncture where social norms intersect with ethical demands, and where both are produced in the context of a self-making which is never fully self-inaugurated.
Although Foucault refers quite straightforwardly to intention and essays deliberation in this text, he also lets us know how difficult it will be to understand this self-stylization in terms of any received understanding of intention and deliberation. For an understanding of the revision of terms that his usage requires, Foucault introduces the terms, “modes of subjection or subjectivation.” These terms do not simply relate the way a subject is formed, but how it becomes self-forming. This becoming of an ethical subject is not a simple matter of critical essays, self-knowledge or self-awareness; it denotes a “process in which the individual delimits that part of himself that will form the object of his moral practice.” The self delimits itself, and decides on the material for its self-making, but the delimitation that the rutgers essays self performs takes place through norms which are, indisputably, already in place. Thus, if we think this aesthetic mode of self-making is contextualized within ethical practice, he reminds us that this ethical labor can only take place within a wider political context, the politics of norms. He makes clear that there is no self-forming outside of a mode of subjectivation, which is to footnotes say, there is no self-forming outside of the norms that orchestrate the possible formation of the subject. (28) We have moved quietly from the discursive notion of the subject to a more psychologically resonant notion of “self,” and it may be that for Foucault the latter term carries more agency than the former. The self forms itself, but it forms itself within a set of formative practices that are characterized as modes of subjectivations.
That the range of its possible forms is delimited in advance by such modes of subjectivation does not mean that the rutgers essays self fails to form itself, that the self is fully formed. Westboro Baptist Essay. On the contrary, it is compelled to form itself, but to form itself within forms that are already more or less in operation and underway. Rutgers Essays. Or, one might say, it is compelled to form itself within practices that are more or less in place. And Antithesis In. But if that selfforming is done in disobedience to the principles by which one is formed, then virtue becomes the practice by which the essays self forms itself in desubjugation, which is to say that it risks its deformation as a subject, occupying that ontologically insecure position which poses the question anew: who will be a subject here, and what will count as a life, a moment of ethical questioning which requires that we break the habits of judgment in by great guide write favor of a riskier practice that seeks to yield artistry from constraint.  This essay was originally delivered, in rutgers essays shorter form, as the Raymond Williams Lecture at Cambridge University in May of 2000, then published in longer form in David Ingram, ed., The Political: Readings in writing paragraph of a Continental Philosophy , London: Basil Blackwell, 2002. I am grateful to William Connolly and Wendy Brown for their very useful comments on earlier drafts.  Raymond Williams, Keywords , (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 75-76.  Theodor W. Adorno, “Cultural Criticism and Society” in Prisms , (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press, 1984), 30.  Michel Foucault, “What is Critique?” in The Politics of Truth , eds.
Sylvere Lotringer and Lysa Hochroth, (New York: Semiotext(e), 1997), transcript by Monique Emery, revised by rutgers essays, Suzanne Delorme, et al., translated into how to others, English by Lysa Hochroth. This essay was originally a lecture given at the French Society of Philosophy on 27 May 1978, subsequently published in Bulletin de la Societe francaise de la philosophie 84:2 (1990) 35-63; 21.  For an interesting account of this transition from critical theory to essays a theory of communicative action, see Seyla Benhabib, Critique, Norm, and Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 1-13.  Michel Foucault, The Use of and antithesis, Pleasure: The History of Sexuality, Volume Two (New York: Pantheon Press, 1985).  Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Volume One (New York: Random House, 1978).
 Michel Foucault, “The Subject and rutgers Power” in Hubert L. Dreyfus and Paul Rabinow, eds., Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics , (Chicago: University of essays, Chicago Press, 1982), 208-228.
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Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Approach Essay Sample. Although popular representations of therapy and counselling frequently present an rutgers essays, antiseptic approach to the individual— as exemplified by psychology essays with footnotes, condescension-leaning analytical types— there does exist a positive and humanistic approach to client treatment. One was developed by essays, Carl Ransom Rogers, the Nobel Prize nominated American psychologist, renowned for his non-negative approach to psychology. Blessed with a healthy amount of respect and psychology essays with footnotes, concern for the dignity of the individual, Rogers maintained an interest in the individual not as an object of study, but a subject of treatment. He studied the individual from a phenomenological and idiographic perspective, and viewed the nature of man to rutgers essays, be essentially positive and trustworthy. This contrasts him against the likes of Sigmund Freud, the highly influential but sexually fixated psychiatrist who generally regarded people to be ridden with psychological malaise and illness. (Pescitelli, 1996b)
Freud’s theories were both, depending on perspective, exceedingly elaborate and needlessly complex. He viewed the human psyche to be ridden with unconscious desires subjected to self repression to maintain the illusion of normalcy, that dreams were the means of identifying these latent desires and psychology with footnotes, that sexual desire is the primary motivational energy of human life that ends up being directed and channeled through all other actions. (Boeree, 2006) Rogers on the other hand, believed in the idea that the human organism is essays driven by a positive force, an “actualizing tendency” that aims for the improvement of the self and the development of its abilities. As such, the human organism is a being that is not only inherently purposeful, but constructive as well. By Great Guide Step. Pescitelli (1996b) observes that “the actualizing tendency is the only motive force in rutgers the theory. It encompasses all motivations; tension, need, or drive reductions; and creative as well as pleasure-seeking tendencies […] Every person thus has a fundamental mandate to fulfill their potential. Boeree (2006) notes that Roger’s conception of actualization, unlike Abraham Maslow’s is not limited to human beings and psychology essays footnotes, that in his earliest examples, he applied it to essays, mushrooms and seaweed. “Think about it: Doesn’t it sometimes amaze you the way weeds will grow through the sidewalk, or saplings crack boulders, or animals survive desert conditions or the frozen north?” Furthermore, actualization applies to ecosystems, where a biologically homogenous ecosystem like a corn field is more likely to become extinguished by corn blight while a biologically diverse one like a forest is more likely to survive the extinction of one organism. That said, Roger’s approach does not rest solely on the capacity for essays with self-actualization. He also presumes that organisms have a psychologically evolved understanding of what is good for them.
As such, organisms are inherently able to attend to their own physical and psychological needs in a balanced fashion. Rutgers. However, the creation of civilization and westboro baptist church essay, the resulting present day complexities are so far removed from the environment that we evolved in that our psychologically evolved ability to appraise the organismic value of essays such things ceases to westboro, function properly. Boeree (2006) notes that things like refined sugar and chocolate appeal to rutgers, our valuing systems, but “do not serve our actualization well.” As such, the present manifestations of dysfunction and neurosis in man are largely a result of the conflict between our individual need for actualization and the stresses that society places upon it, what could essentially be termed an “incongruity” between the westboro baptist real self and the ideal self that we construct for ourselves under the influence of rutgers society. (Boeree, 2006) For Rogers, a “fully-functioning” individual is possessed of five qualities: First, he is open to experience, rather than being defensive. This is not merely a banal trait of being receptive to new ideas, but rather an ability to accurately perceive experiences and feelings in such a manner as to accept reality as it exists.
This is others essay crucial, because without an honest appraisal of feelings and reality, true actualization is difficult. Second, a fully functioning individual lives in the present, acknowledging that while planning for the future and learning from the past is essays important, they should not interfere with the ability to confront present realities properly. Third, one should be capable of trusting instinct, that is to say, our individual valuing processes. Help Others. In other words, trust the real self, the one that results from essays, acknowledging present reality and being open to experience and by great guide research step, being in touch with one’s own actualizing tendencies. Fourth, a fully functioning individual possesses experiential freedom. Rutgers. That is to say that regardless of whether free will exists or not, we most experience freedom in the face of choices and options. As such, the others essay fully functioning individual recognizes the freedom that is there in essays the act of making choices and decisions and as such, does not abnegate the responsibility inherent in recognizing such freedom. Fifth, the fully functioning person who is in contact with self-actualization, acknowledges responsibility for his actions and participates in the present reality will feel obligated to contribute to society by enabling the actualization of others and promoting life. As such, this person will endeavor towards creativity, whether it is through sciences or the humanities, parenting or social work, or simply doing his best at work. Psychology Essays. Boeree describes this creativity as being “very close to Erikson’s generativity.” Rogers’ developed a person-centered approach to rutgers essays, therapy.
Surprisingly enough, this approach did not result from his conception of the fully-functioning individual. Rather, these theories arose from his experiences in therapy. It was initially conceived and named as the critical essays “non-directive” approach, in the sense that the therapist does not lead the client. This approach operates under the presumption that the therapist is NOT the essays highest authority on the client’s issues and needs. Rather, the client is to determine the direction of his own therapy. Hence, Rogers renamed his therapeutic approach as “client-centered” or “person-centered” (Boeree, 2006)
Rogers described person-centered therapy to be “supportive, not reconstructive,” and Boeree (2006) notes the paragraph of a research paper analogy of learning to ride a bicycle: “When you help a child to learn to ride a bike, you can’t just tell them how. They have to try it for themselves. And you can’t hold them up the rutgers whole time either. There comes a point when you have to let them go. If they fall, they fall, but if you hang on, they never learn.” As such, the autonomous actualization of a client can only by great guide paper step be obtained by promoting independent thinking rather than dependence.
By disowning the authoritarian role traditionally accorded to therapists, the rutgers person-centered approach encourages independence. Rogers’ person-centered approach is essay renowned for the technique of reflection, which is employed in order to mirror the emotional communication of the client. This, coupled with the aforementioned conditions required for positive therapy, which as Pescitelli (1996a) observes, “involves the therapist’s entry into rutgers the client’s unique phenomenological world. In mirroring this world, the therapist does not disagree or point out neither contradictions nor attempt to delve into writing paragraph paper the unconscious. The focus is on immediate conscious experience.” As such, person-centered therapy involves freeing a person of the obstacles that impede self-development and independence, namely, a rigidity of self-perception that restricts his or her behavior to non-constructive actions. As Mulhauser (2008) observed, “the person-centered approach views the client as their own best authority on their own experience, and it views the rutgers client as being fully capable of fulfilling their own potential for growth.” I find myself largely in agreement with the essay person-centered approach, as it certainly endorses a more empathetic view which regards the client as someone who is empowered to enable his own development, rather than presume that he is an impotent prisoner of his own neuroses. Of course, the employment of reflection and rutgers essays, empowerment in help person-centered therapy is not without its caveats.
I don’t believe it would be successful without a therapist who is capable of employing the techniques responsibly rather than merely reiterating the rutgers client’s own words back to him. My research found that many writers noted three requirements for proper person-centered therapy: First is congruence. That is to say that there is a sense of authentic/genuine honesty with the client. (Boeree, 2006). The therapist does not present himself as aloofly professional, but sincerely engaged in the furtherance of the client’s well-being, and as such maintains transparency as to minimize the westboro baptist church possibility that the client hold the essays therapist’s sincerity and interest suspect. The First. (Mulhauser, 2008) Secondly, the rutgers therapist must be empathetic. In effect, the therapist is able to essay, truly understand and comprehend the feelings of the client not just on an objective level, but from the perspective of the client. It is “when the counsellor perceives what the world is like from the client’s point of view” that he “demonstrates […] that that view has value” and “that the client is being accepted.” (Mulhauser, 2008) Thirdly, the therapist must be respectful in rutgers essays the sense that he regards the client positively and accepting him unconditionally.
This is crucial because in order to truly further the westboro client’s well being, he must be able to operate without being judgmental. Since the success of the person-centered approach to therapy is largely contingent on the client’s ability to freely explore thoughts and feelings, whether positive or negative, a therapist who is able to evaluate the client without condemning the client for his neuroses is critical as well. As Mulhauser notes, it is crucial for the client be free of “having to do anything in particular or meet any particular standards of behaviour to ‘earn’ positive regard…” I don’t mean to essays, be perverse. But, because I find that all individuals regardless of peculiarities and quirks, fascinate me and essays with, find it difficult to be offended or regard them in essays a negative fashion. Thus, I am capable of executing person-centered therapy without judgment. Any client who would decide to seek such counseling from me would not have to psychology with, worry that I would seek to measure them against my own beliefs, and judge them accordingly.
Additionally, this egalitarian understanding of the diversity of human quirks and peculiarities is derived from what I believe is my own ability to maintain empathy towards all. As such, I would be able to comprehend what a potential client feels regardless of how alien his situation might be to my own experiences. I can identify without having been in his place, and rutgers, perceive the world from essays with footnotes, his unique perspective. Finally, I think I would make a good person-centered therapist simply because I would never pretend that this ability to essays, identify or remove myself from judgment would necessarily deny my ability to maintain interest in a client. I think this is an important quality, for crucial is critical essays othello not only acknowledging his uniqueness as a person and rutgers, the sincere interest in his well-being, but an honest ability to recognize that therapist or not, I do not have all the answers.
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Carl Rogers. Personality Theories. Retrieved May 11, 2008 from: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html. Mulhauser, G. (2008, April 22). An Introduction to Person-Centered Counselling. Counselling Resource. Westboro Baptist Church Essay. Retrieved May 11, 2008 from: http://counsellingresource.com/types/person-centred/ Pescitelli, D. (1996). Rogerian Therapy. Rutgers. Personality Consciousness . Retrieved May 11, 2008 from: http://pandc.ca/?cat=carl_rogerspage=rogerian_therapy.
Pescitelli, D. (1996). Psychology. An Analysis of rutgers essays Carl Rogers’ Theory of Personality. Personality Consciousness . Retrieved May 11, 2008 from: http://pandc.ca/?cat=carl_rogerspage=rogerian_theory. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Approach. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Approach. Carl Rogers (1902-1987) a psychologist developed the person-centred approach.
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